Research Statistics of Sex Trafficking at Olympics, World Cup, Super Bowl (GAATW)

Research paper Statistics from GAATW on Sex Trafficking, Human Trafficking,  Sex Slavery at Sporting events such as the Olympics, World Cup, Super Bowl

WHAT’S THE COST OF A
RUMOUR?

A guide to sorting out the myths and the facts

about sporting events and trafficking
2011
WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
A guide to sorting out the myths and the facts about sporting events
and trafficking

http://www.gaatw.org/publications/WhatstheCostofaRumour.11.15.2011.pdf

2011 Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW)
Writer and researcher: Julie Ham
Cover Photo by Jay Simmons
jay.simmons@rgbstock.com
Layout & design: Alfie Gordo
Printing: Suphattra Poonneam
Supported by a grant from the Open Society Foundations.
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women
P.O. Box 36, Bangkok Noi Post Office
Bangkok 10700 Thailand
Email: gaatw@gaatw.org
Website: http://www.gaatw.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS
How to read this information guide? 6
Executive summary 8
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE 11
What is trafficking? What is not trafficking? 12
What is the link being made between trafficking and large sporting events? 14
What is the evidence on this link? 15
2010 World Cup, South Africa 16
2010 Olympics, Vancouver, Canada 18
2006 World Cup, Berlin, Germany 20
2004 Olympics, Athens, Greece 22
US Super Bowls, e.g. Dallas (2011), Tampa (2009), Phoenix (2008) 23
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR 29
If there isn’t any evidence, why is the connection still made? Doesn’t all this attention
mean something’s going on? 30
Is it possible that the media and political hype actually helped prevent trafficking
from occurring? 34

Even if there isn’t any evidence, is there any harm in publicising this issue? What are the
“consequences of an unscreened rumour”? 36
Wasting needed resources 36
Misrepresenting people and issues ultimately undermines anti-trafficking
objectives 38
Criminal penalties and human rights violations against sex workers 39
“Cleaning up the streets” by displacing sex workers and other marginalised
groups 41
Controlling women’s travel 42
Even if there isn’t evidence, is it still possible that trafficking for prostitution could
increase during large sporting events? 43
ACTING EFFECTIVELY 51
Are there any connections between other forms of trafficking and large sporting events? 52
What’s the best way to deal with the issue of trafficking around international sporting
events? 54
Consult and collaborate with groups affected by trafficking and/or
anti-trafficking measures 55
Raise awareness about rights and options, not fear or pity 56
Encourage more thoughtful analysis in public discussions around trafficking 59
Offer legal, non-exploitative labour options for migrants 60
Address sex workers’ fears of police violence and exploitation 60
Decriminalise sex work 62
Base anti-trafficking efforts on evidence, not sensationalism 64
To sum up 69
Useful contacts and suggested resources 70
Acknowledgements 75
6 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
How to read this information
guide?
What’s this for?
There has been a lot published on the supposed link between sporting events and trafficking, but how
much of it is true and how much of it is useful? With this guide, we’ve tried to pull out the most useful
information on this topic. To do this, we reviewed literature from various sources including anti-trafficking
organisations, sex workers rights organisations, other types of non-governmental organisations (NGOs),
academic researchers, UN bodies, government offices, the media and the GAATW network.
We hope that the information here will help readers:
• Develop proportionate and evidence-based anti-trafficking responses, rather than measures
based on ideology or public myths;
• Critically analyse claims and assumptions about trafficking and sporting events;
• Share factual information about trafficking and quickly correct misinformation about
trafficking;
• Quickly respond to measures that stigmatise sex workers and migrants, including
prostitution abolitionist campaigns; and
• Learn what worked and what didn’t in past host cities.
Who’s this for?
Audiences that are interested in anti-trafficking issues:
• Media
• Government representatives
• General public
• Local officials, city planners
• Law enforcement
• Civil society, including anti-trafficking organisations and sex workers rights organisations
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
7
How to use this guide
Pull out what you need – Given the diverse needs of different audiences, we’ve tried to make each
chapter work as a stand-alone document.
Listen to what different ‘voices’ are saying – Messages can resonate in different ways with different
audiences, so we’ve tried very hard to include a variety of quotes representing different ‘voices’ that
have worked on this issue. The quotes and source materials referenced here come from anti-trafficking
organisations, sex workers rights organisations, law enforcement, journalists, government
representatives, UN bodies, and researchers.
A note about language:
‘Sex work’ and ‘prostitution’
The terminology around commercial sex can be very politically loaded. Sex workers rights organisations
typically refer to commercial sex as ‘sex work’ and some have argued against using the term
‘prostitution’. Groups that are seeking to eliminate all forms of sex work use the term ‘prostitution’ and
reject the term ‘sex work’. Since its inception, GAATW has supported sex workers’ rights and valued
the role of sex workers rights groups in anti-trafficking efforts. However, both ‘sex work’ and ‘prostitution’
are used throughout this document. In most cases, this is to maintain continuity between whose
opinion is being stated; for example, ‘prostitution’ is often used when abolitionist efforts are being
described, and ‘sex work’ is used when sex workers rights groups are discussed. In other instances,
‘prostitution’ is used when discussing frameworks that use the term ‘prostitution’ rather than ‘sex
work’, e.g. laws in many countries refer to ‘prostitution’ rather than ‘sex work’. Terms in quotes used
in this document have also not been altered.
‘Abolitionist’ and ‘prohibitionist’
There is also contention around how to identify those who wish to eliminate all forms of sex work.
Many of those who wish to eliminate all forms of sex work identify themselves as ‘abolitionists’, i.e.
working to abolish prostitution. In this document, these groups are identified as ‘prostitution abolitionists’
to differentiate them from ‘abolitionists’ in other movements (e.g. movement to abolish slavery). It
should be noted that some sex workers rights allies feel that ‘prohibitionist’ is a more accurate description
of these groups, as the measures abolitionist groups call for are generally based on increasing criminal
penalties around consensual sex work. While prostitution abolitionists see their efforts as akin to
abolishing slavery, sex workers rights allies and others see them as prohibitionists and their efforts
more akin to prohibiting a social ‘vice’.
8 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Executive Summary
Human trafficking is a very serious human rights violation that demands a sustained and holistic
response based on real evidence. We are concerned that valuable resources and public momentum
are being channelled towards a false link between sporting events and trafficking for prostitution,
resources that are needed elsewhere.
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
• Trafficking is not the same thing as sex work. There is a difference between women
trafficked into prostitution and sex workers who migrate to other countries for work.
• Prostitution abolitionists have argued that large groups of men at sporting events result in
increased demand for commercial sex, and that this demand is supposedly met through
trafficking women. Anti-trafficking organisations, sex workers rights organisations and
other stakeholders have strongly refuted this claim.
• There is a very wide discrepancy between claims that are made prior to large sporting
events and the actual number of trafficking cases found. There is no evidence that large
sporting events cause an increase in trafficking for prostitution.
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
Fortunately, more stakeholders are increasingly becoming aware that there is no evidence that large
sporting events increase trafficking for prostitution. During previous sporting events, sex workers rights
organisations in particular, have worked hard to inject an evidence-based approach and human rightsbased
approach into anti-trafficking discussions.
There are a number of reasons why an increase in trafficking for prostitution during large sporting
events is unlikely:
• Statistically not feasible;
• Short-term events are not likely to be profitable for traffickers or sex workers;
• Large sporting events are not only attended by men; and
• Paid sexual services may not be affordable for most sports visitors.
Despite the lack of evidence, this idea continues to hold great appeal for prostitution abolitionist
groups, anti-immigration groups, politicians and some journalists. The resilience of this inaccurate
claim could be due to:
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
9
• Its usefulness as a fundraising strategy;
• Its effectiveness in grabbing the media and the public’s attention;
• Being a quick, easy way to be seen ‘doing something’ about trafficking;
• Being a more socially acceptable guise for prostitution abolitionist agendas and antiimmigration
agendas.
Even if numerous law enforcement and anti-trafficking campaigns have not detected the massive
‘floods’ predicted, the idea may still sound plausible because of:
• Ideas about ‘better victims’;
• Assumptions about sports and masculinity;
• Efforts by prostitution abolitionist groups; and
• Ideas about ‘foreign threats’.
Anti-trafficking campaigns that are based on unsubstantiated claims can cause ‘collateral damage’ or
negatively impact the groups they are purported to protect, including:
• Wasting needed resources;
• Misrepresenting people and issues, ultimately undermining anti-trafficking objectives;
• Resulting in increased criminal penalties and human rights violations against sex workers;
• Displacing sex workers and other marginalised groups in city ‘clean-up’ efforts; and
• Attempting to restrict or control women’s travel.
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
More productive ways to deal with the issue of trafficking around international sporting events are:
• Addressing other forms of trafficking and/or exploitation connected to large sporting events,
such as migrant workers’ rights in the construction industry, workers’ rights in sport clothing
and equipment industries, and the recruitment of young athletes;
• Consulting and collaborating with groups directly affected by trafficking and/or anti-trafficking
measures, including sex workers and migrants;
• Raising awareness about people’s rights and options, instead of fuelling fear or pity;
• Encouraging more thoughtful analysis in public discussions around trafficking;
• Offering legal, non-exploitative labour options for migrants;
• Decriminalising sex work;
• Addressing sex workers’ fears of police violence and exploitation; and
• Basing anti-trafficking efforts on evidence, not sensationalism.
LOOKING
AT THE
EVIDENCE
12 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
What is trafficking? What is not
trafficking?
Trafficking in persons is a very serious human rights violation and is defined by three elements – the
movement of a person; with deception or coercion; into a situation of forced labour, servitude or slaverylike
practice.1 Trafficking is not the same thing as sex work. While some persons are trafficked into
prostitution, not all (or even most) sex workers are trafficked.
It is possible for sex workers to be trafficked. For example, women already doing sex work may plan
to work abroad but find themselves in a situation where they are unable to move freely. Similarly,
women who have not worked in the sex trade may know they will be doing sex work but find working
conditions unacceptable (e.g. less choice about clients or services, lower rates).
Many women, whom we assisted, had agreed to work in the sex industry, and therefore
do not complain about working in the sex industry, but do complain about their working
conditions. Further one needs to keep in mind that some women, who were initially
trafficked – decide to work in the sex industry later.2 – Ban Ying, an anti-trafficking
organisation based in Germany and GAATW member
Sexual exploitation is also not the same thing as sex work. While some sex workers may be sexually
exploited (e.g. if a customer refuses to pay, if a club owner demands sexual favours from an employee),
not all sex workers are sexually exploited (i.e. paid, consensual sex is not sexual exploitation).
Escaping trafficking to work independently with other sex workers
Bee (not her real name) was sold by her brother to one of his friends who owned a
brothel in the Narathiwat province in Thailand. Bee was determined to help her brother
and was not afraid of going away to work as she knew who her employer would be.
However, after some time passed, she discovered she was bonded to her employer
and ‘in debt’ as her brother had been regularly withdrawing her pay from the owner.
She fled the brothel and started working independently in sex work with other sex
workers: “Some of the girls who couldn’t stand the pressure and exploitation, joined
together to work. We rented a room together and worked without having anyone take
a cut in our earnings or forcing us to do anything. We would look out for each other
and find our own customers, like a self-reliant group. When some of the girls had
saved enough money, they left the group to return home.” About a year after earning
money as a sex worker, Bee decided to return home.3 – Self Empowerment Programme
for Migrant Women (SEPOM), a returnee migrant women’s organisation in Thailand
Trafficking women into prostitution is different from (a) sex workers who migrate to other countries for
work on their own, and (b) persons who help sex workers migrate to other countries for work (i.e.
helping someone travel in itself does not fit the international definition for trafficking).
Despite several media reports to the contrary, foreign migrant sex workers are not
automatically victims of trafficking….Research in Southern Africa has established
that a number of migrant women choose to engage in sex work as a practical solution
to periods of intense economic strain. Although some may make this choice reluctantly,
they are not victims of trafficking. Therefore, they should not be treated as victims to
be ‘rescued’ and returned to their countries of origin. The idea that migrant sex workers
need to be ‘rescued’ and ‘rehabilitated’ is harmful rather than helpful, as it overlooks
the agency and rights of those who engage in sex work.4 – Marlise Richter and Tamlyn
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
13
Monson, Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of the Witwatersrand, South
Africa
GAATW’s membership has very diverse opinions on sex work, but what we agree on is that:
• Sex workers have the right to organize;
• Sex workers have the right to safe working conditions;
• Violence against women in sex work is a grave human rights violation;
• Trafficking is distinct from sex work; and
• Anti-trafficking policies must factor in sex workers’ concerns and knowledge.
In addition to understanding the difference between trafficking and sex work, people should also be
prepared to question trafficking statistics often repeated in the media. Measuring trafficking is notoriously
difficult and estimates can vary widely due to methodological and ideological differences. In actuality,
there still is not a sufficient body of research that accurately measures how many people are trafficked
globally and how many of these are women, men, transgender and/or children.5 6 One significant
limitation has been researchers’ selective focus on a particular type of trafficking, specifically trafficking
of women into prostitution.7 The consequences of what this selective focus has had on victims of other
forms of trafficking are detailed in GAATW’s 2011 Working Paper on Labour Exploitation (www.gaatw.org).
When it comes to statistics, trafficking of girls and women is one of several highly
emotive issues which seem to overwhelm critical faculties. Numbers take on a life of
their own, gaining acceptance through repetition, often with little inquiry into their
derivations. Journalists, bowing to the pressures of editors, demand numbers, any
number. Organizations feel compelled to supply them, lending false precisions and
spurious authority to many reports.8 – Trafficking Statistics Project, UNESCO Bangkok
Ann Jordan from the Center for Human Rights & Humanitarian Law (US) suggests the following strategies
to assess the accuracy of anti-trafficking data:
• Examine the definitions used, e.g. how is trafficking defined, how is exploitation defined;
• Locate the source of the data;
• Examine the research methodology;
• Think about what information may be missing; and
• Ask whether the data actually supports the conclusion.9
14 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
What is the link being made
between trafficking and large
sporting events?
Somewhere along the way, testosterone-lined sports events like the Super Bowl began
to have the reputation of rolling versions of Sodom and Gomorrah. Months before
each event, the clarion calls warn of impending invasions by legions of those who
belong to the world’s oldest profession.10 – ‘Super Bowl hyperbole and prostitution’,
The Star (Toronto, Canada)
The assumed link between large sporting events and trafficking for prostitution has been argued most
forcefully by groups who believe that eradicating sex work will decrease trafficking (i.e. prostitution
abolitionists). These groups have claimed that large groups of men results in an increased demand for
paid sexual services, and that this demand will supposedly be met through the trafficking of women.
“Any time that you have a mega event… trafficking goes up because the demand
goes up. Any time you have men traveling away from their social networks [to a place]
where they enjoy a degree of safety and anonymity, they’re more likely to pay for
sex.”11 – Michelle Miller, Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity
This simplistic equation relies on problematic assumptions about masculinity, business practices
within the sex industry, sex workers’ capacity to take action, and the root causes of trafficking.
Within the demand-supply equation, the estimated number of migrant sex workers
needed to fulfil the demand during the World Cup altered to the number of women
who might be trafficked, by establishing at first potential and subsequently an explicit
connection between sporting events and the increase in demand for commercial sex.
Finally, the claim that some women among those expected to migrate might be
trafficked, that is forced into the sex industry, or deceived about the conditions of
work, evolved to the claim that the majority if not all women will been trafficked.12
– Dr. Sanja Milivojevi (University of New South Wales) and Dr. Sharon Pickering
(Monash University), Australia
The hype around large sporting events and increases in trafficking for prostitution is often based on
misinformation, poor data, and a tendency to sensationalise. Despite the lack of evidence, this idea
continues to hold great appeal for prostitution abolitionist groups, anti-immigration groups, and a
number of politicians, scholars and journalists.
What’s troubling is that this idea has been taken for granted as fact, particularly by politicians. On
various occasions, politicians have uncritically repeated this claim13, despite the fact that numerous
researchers, anti-trafficking experts, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have stated that
there is no evidence of a link between large sporting events and trafficking for prostitution.
This has perhaps been most visible with inter-governmental discussions prior to the 2006 World Cup
in Germany. This issue first arose, not because NGOs or law enforcement detected any increases,
but because it presented the Swedish government with a political opportunity to challenge Germany’s
policy towards sex work. The Swedish government argued that Germany’s policy of legalised prostitution
would increase the risk of trafficking for the 2006 World Cup.14 This was followed by a European
Parliament resolution on 15 March 2006, falsely claiming that “major sports events result in a temporary
and spectacular increase in the demand for sexual services”15 and repeated by the Council of Europe:
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
15
Taking into account the European Parliament’s resolution of 15 March 2006 on forced
prostitution in the context of world sports events16, the Presidency emphasises the
fact that major international events, including sports events, have shown to pose the
risk to contribute to a temporary increase in trafficking in human beings.17
Given the high numbers of tourists, visitors and temporary workers related to large sporting events,
some have argued that there could be an increase in business for women in sex work. Sex workers
have also remarked that these events could be an opportunity to gain more clients. However, based on
available information (including anecdotal reports), many sex workers report being surprised and
disappointed at the lack of business during large sporting events. In any case, any small increases in
the demand for paid sexual services have not reached the extremely high levels predicted by prostitution
abolitionist groups.
There’s no doubt prostitution takes place during Super Bowl week, and that prostitutes
do flock to big events, like conventions or festivals, but the hyperbole seems to
more often than not to outstrip the event.18 – ‘Super Bowl hyperbole and prostitution’,
The Star (Toronto, Canada)
What is the evidence on this link?
Despite massive media attention, law enforcement measures and efforts by prostitution abolitionist
groups, there is no empirical evidence that trafficking for prostitution increases around large sporting
events. This link has been de-bunked by other anti-trafficking organisations and researchers. There is
also no empirical evidence that the demand for paid sex increases dramatically during international
sporting events.19 20
For all of the events detailed in this section (the events that had the most media coverage about
trafficking), cases of trafficking for prostitution linked to the sporting event were absent or nowhere
near the predicted levels.
The focus on 40.000 “forced prostitutes” [supposedly in Germany for the World Cup]
is characteristic for a discourse which does not make exact distinctions between
undocumented sex workers who work here without a visa and a work permit but on a
voluntary basis; and sex workers who are trafficked.21 – Dr. Nivedita Prasad & Babette
Rohner, Ban Ying, an anti-trafficking organisation (Germany) and GAATW member
No one is quite sure where the number originated. But in the past few years, whenever
a place holds a great sporting event the rumor of a flood of prostitutes soon blossoms.
And for some reason that number is 40,000. Laura Agustin, a sociologist who studies
and blogs about migrant sex workers, calls it “a fantasy number.” “It has no basis.”22
– ‘Debunking World Cup’s biggest myth’, Yahoo! Sports
16 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
2010 World Cup, South Africa
WHAT WAS PREDICTED?
40,000 extra prostitutes/foreign prostitutes/trafficked women/forced
prostitutes were predicted to be ‘imported’ for the event
The South African Central Drug Authority’s claim that 40,000 women would be imported for the 2010
World Cup was repeated by various media.23
However, researchers, government representatives, sex workers rights groups and the International
Organisation for Migration all argue that the 40,000 to 100,000 figures reported by the media and
public officials are unfounded hype and recycled rumours from previous sporting events, such as the
2006 German World Cup.24
Dr. Chandr Gould, Institute for Security Studies (South Africa) suggested that the
figure originated with an agency official but was mistakenly interpreted as an official
estimate: “I don’t think at any stage it was really a serious answer.”25 Another article
quoted a government representative saying: “We laughed at that [40,000] number,”
and “There was no evidence there would ever be 40,000 prostitutes.”26
One flaw with the number is obvious, says Patrick Belser, a senior economist with
the International Labour Organization, a United Nations agency. Of the hundreds of
thousands of people expected to visit South Africa for the World Cup, not all of them
are men, and most men probably wouldn’t seek to pay for sex. An additional 40,000
sex workers, says Dr. Belser, “would represent some kind of oversupply.”27
– ‘Suspect estimates of sex trafficking at the World Cup’, Wall Street Journal
WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED?
The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development did not find one
case of trafficking during the World Cup.
The Department of Justice and Constitutional Development reported at a Parliamentary meeting that
no cases of trafficking were found during the World Cup.28 This was mentioned in a report by the Sex
Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) and the South African National AIDS Council’s
(SANAC) Women’s Sector29 but was not reported by the media, despite the intense media and political
attention on trafficking leading up to the 2010 World Cup.
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
17
OVERALL, BUSINESS WAS DOWN
Both the purchase and sale of sex is illegal in South Africa. Related activities such as brothel keeping
and living off the earnings from sex work, are also illegal.30
Research commissioned by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) found that there was a small increase
in the number of female workers who advertised online and in newspapers but that the percentage of
non-South African sex workers declined rather than increased in relation to the World Cup. The total
number of clients seen by sex workers did not increase significantly, although the percentage of
foreign clients doubled during the event. This suggests that a percentage of the local clientele was
temporarily replaced by foreign clients during the event.31 32
Before the World Cup, many sex workers expressed the hope that they would be able
to make more money during the World Cup, that their working conditions might improve,
that they would meet new clients, and that some might be able to leave the sex work
industry….Despite high sex worker hopes, more than two thirds of sex female workers
had seen no change in the sex industry during the World Cup period.33 – Marlise
Richter and Dr. Wim Delva
Anecdotal reports in the media from sex workers and business owners reported that business (or
‘demand’) fell during the World Cup:
• No, I didn’t make money, nothing. I only see my regular clients, my local regular clients. I
never saw foreigner or nothing. I didn’t make even money.34 – ‘World Cup avoids flood of
sex workers’, National Public Radio (US)
• Paula at Executive Shows, which provides exotic dancers for adult entertainment clubs,
said business had been terrible. Since the World Cup began, the roughly 300 clubs
across Gauteng for whom she books girls have cancelled shows. “Guys would rather
watch soccer. I am counting down the days until the end.”35 – ‘No ‘boom boom’ for Joburg’s
sex workers’, IOL News (South Africa)
Unfortunately, all the media hype around trafficking did nothing to reduce sex workers’ vulnerabilities:
Much media attention was focused on South Africa’s sex industry in the run-up to the
World Cup, but few actors engaged sex workers on their needs and expectations of
the World Cup. Police contact with sex work remained high and included systematic
police brutality, corruption and harassment. Health care contact with sex workers
generally decreased during the World Cup period at a time where health care coverage
should have expanded.36 – Marlise Richter and Dr. Wim Delva
18 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
2010 Olympics, Vancouver, Canada
WHAT WAS PREDICTED?
It was mainly the media, prostitution abolitionist groups, faith-based groups, and the Salvation Army
that predicted trafficking would increase during the Vancouver Olympics, warning of “an explosion” in
human trafficking.37 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) estimates that approximately 800
people are trafficked into Canada per year, with an estimated 600 trafficked into the sex trade.38
While the government was relatively quiet, “secure in the knowledge of their border
security budget of 6 billion dollars”, the period before the Olympics “then became the
battle zone between sex workers’ rights organisations and abolitionist groups focused
on curbing male sexual demand with graphic and sensationalist posters and media
campaigns”. One law enforcement vice police officer said he did not even know what
he was looking for, that he was “searching for ghosts”.39 – Dr. Annalee Lepp, GAATW
Canada
Law enforcement and sex workers rights groups in Vancouver tried to counter these claims that
trafficking would increase by:
• Pointing to evidence from past events;
• Clarifying the distinction between trafficking and sex work; and
• Critiquing the messages in prostitution abolitionist campaigns. Vancouver Police Inspector
John de Haas spoke out against the Salvation Army’s anti-trafficking campaign (The Truth
Isn’t Sexy) and argued that information campaigns should be grounded in facts and “not
cause hysteria”.40
“There’s been an erosion between some of the distinctions between human trafficking
and sex trade and victimization…While there may be an increase in prostitution,
there hasn’t been any link between human trafficking and prostitution.” “As far as I
know we haven’t had a spike in investigations in human trafficking or human smuggling
that we can link to the 2010 Olympics in any way.” 41 – Sgt. Duncan Pound, British
Columbia Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Border Integrity Program
“It costs a lot of money to move people around. It’s a short-term event, so from a
trafficker’s perspective, it wouldn’t make a lot of sense.”42 Vancouver Police Inspector
John de Haas.
Prostitution abolitionist groups claimed that any efforts to empower sex workers to improve their
working conditions would increase trafficking around the Olympics. In 2007, the British Columbia
Coalition of Experiential Communities (BCCEC) proposed a sex worker-led, cooperative brothel, as a
strategy to improve workers’ safety, reduce violence against street-based workers, and mitigate
displacement by Olympic-related law enforcement measures.43 Prostitution abolitionist groups and
the Committee Against Human Trafficking launched a campaign to protest Vancouver’s mayor, who
said he would consider the proposal.
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
19
WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED?
Researchers are still examining the data44, but anecdotal reports suggest no
trafficking cases were identified and business (or ‘demand’) was down for sex
workers.
In Canada, it is not illegal to buy or sell sex, but many related activities are illegal. For instance, it is
illegal to own or occupy a ‘bawdy house’ (i.e. location regularly used for sex work), live on the avails of
sex work (e.g. earnings), talk with a client in a public place, or assist anyone to work in sex work (e.g.
security, receptionists, accountants, etc.).45
A study with 230 sex workers found that during the Olympics, sex workers reported significantly more
police stopping sex workers without arrest, less clients, and more difficulty meeting clients due to
construction.46 The same study found no significant increases in new sex workers or trafficked sex
workers. Other research on the impact of the 2010 Olympics on trafficking and sex work is still being
finalised.47 However, anecdotal reports from sex workers groups in Vancouver confirm that business
(or ‘demand’) was slow for sex workers.48
“Our members reported that business was slow,” said Kerry Porth, the executive
director of Prostitution Alternatives Counseling & Education Society (PACE), which
offered free media training and nightly outreach sessions during the Games. “But the
most important thing is that they were able to work safely.”….[U]nless they receive a
complaint, the Vancouver Police Department usually gives sex workers a wide berth
to conduct business. During the Games, they honored their commitment to continue
the no-arrest routine. The city even donated extra money to PACE, so the organization
could stay open overnight, and proffered tickets to Olympics events for sex workers
who partook in PACE outreach.49 – ‘Vancouver sex workers had ‘an amazing two
weeks’, AOL News
Anecdotally, there was no increase in levels of prostitution. “In fact, there was likely a
reduction in work for both street level and inside workers,” Shannon said, citing that
added security and a decreased area, with more areas given to the Games, may have
affected clientele.50 – Esther Shannon, FIRST, a sex worker ally group (Canada) and
GAATW member
20 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
2006 World Cup, Berlin, Germany
WHAT WAS PREDICTED?
40,000 extra prostitutes/foreign prostitutes/trafficked women/forced
prostitutes were predicted to be ‘imported’ for the event
Nobody knows, but the number is making a national career and has turned into a steady figure.51 – Dr.
Nivedita Prasad & Babette Rohner, Ban Ying, an anti-trafficking organisation (Germany) and GAATW
member
Estimates that 40,000 women would be ‘imported’ for the 2006 World Cup was first claimed by the
Association of German Cities who later disclaimed the figure; CARE for Europe; the Salvation Army;
the German Women’s Council or Deutscher Frauenrat; and the Nordic Council.52 53 54 The Council of
Europe estimated that 30,000 to 60,000 women would be trafficked for the event.55
Many non-governmental organisations (NGOs), experts, and law enforcement services later argued
that the figure was unrealistic and unfounded, arguing that with 1,000 victims of trafficking for sexual
exploitation in Germany a year, an increase to 40,000 would be highly unlikely. 56 57 However, media
and politicians continued to circulate estimates and figures from prostitution abolitionist groups.
[T]he moral panic around ‘sex slaves’ and the World Cup in Germany was fuelled by
sensationalistic reporting, in which trafficking was reduced to sex work, and women
trafficked for sex portrayed as innocent and naive girls forced into the sex industry.58
– Dr. Sanja Milivojevi (University of New South Wales), Australia
Prostitution is a legally recognised profession in Germany. Germany (and the Netherlands) have “the
most liberal prostitution policies in Western Europe”: sex work is recognised as a legal profession,
sex workers are recognised as employees and are entitled to social benefits and health insurance.59
US and Swedish government representatives used the World Cup ‘moral panic’ to challenge Germany’s
policies on sex work60 with the US lobbying for the German government to criminalise all sex work,
despite “no conclusive evidence [that] Germany’s liberal approach to prostitution made it more attractive
to human traffickers.”.61
WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED?
“All data, information and experts’ statements that are available to date strongly indicate
that an increase in human trafficking, during and after the World Cup did not occur.”62
– Jana Hennig, Sarah Craggs, Frank Laczko and Fred Larsson
5 trafficking cases assumed to have a direct link to the 2006 World Cup63
Researchers for the International Organisation for Migration (intergovernmental organisation) found
that at the time of the 2006 World Cup, 33 investigation cases of human trafficking for the purposes of
prostitution and/or promotion of human trafficking were reported to the Federal Criminal Police Office.64
Of these, only 5 cases were thought to be linked to the 2006 World Cup. These 5 cases involved 4
female victims and 1 male victim, all between the ages of 18-21. The victims came from Bulgaria (2
women), Hungary (1 man), the Czech Republic (1 woman) and Germany (1 woman).
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
21
Police also targeted sex workers, aggressively raided brothels and intensified checks on brothels.
Police raided 71 brothels in Berlin during the 2006 World Cup. Police found no evidence
of trafficking but deported ten women.65 – Ban Ying, an anti-trafficking organisation
(Germany) and GAATW member
Obviously, even one victim of trafficking deserves serious attention and care. However, these numbers
are far below the predicted estimates that have typically been promoted by anti-prostitution
organisations. These findings were echoed by other anti-trafficking stakeholders:
Four different national hotlines have been set up by NGOs. For Berlin, Ban Ying had
agreed to assist trafficked women, if any would have called. The 1st hotline started
on the 1st of May. Till today we have received one (!) phone call – but even this one
case was not a case of trafficking. We do not know how many calls were directed to
NGO’S in other cities – but had there been an increase we would have realised it in
Berlin…Besides these hotlines, we had business as usual – no more phone calls
from (potentially) trafficked women or clients.66 – Ban Ying, a German anti-trafficking
organisation and GAATW member organisation
None of the La Strada member organisations received information on referrals on
trafficking cases explicitly related to the World Cup event.67 – La Strada International,
a European network of anti-trafficking organisations and GAATW member organisation
The mass of prostitutes simply never arrived and people involved in the sex industry
were hardly surprised…Those who work in the sex industry and its associated services
in Germany saw the whole thing as ‘hysterical media hype’ and the claims of the
predicted forced prostitution as ‘exaggerations’.68 – Samuel Loewenberg
The German Government reported to the Council of the European Union that the number of sex
workers only increased in the city of Munich69 (from 500 sex workers to 800 sex workers) as a result
of the World Cup, but trafficking did not. There were also no significant increases in “illegal stays in
connection with the practice of prostitution”.70
22 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
2004 Olympics
Athens, Greece
INACCURATE REPORTING AND INTERNATIONAL
CONTROVERSY
The 2004 Athens Olympics appears to be the first event where trafficking was misleadingly linked with
an international sporting event.71 In the lead-up to the Olympics, Athens officials attempted to enforce
city regulations regarding brothels, e.g. brothels are only allowed to employ a maximum of three
people, must not be located near schools, and should have a permit to operate legally.72 73 This was
inaccurately reported in the media as an attempt to increase the number of brothels (when in fact, city
officials had tried to shut down 15 brothels). Inaccurate media reports were then used by Scandinavian
and a few Eastern European government ministers to accuse Athens officials of encouraging sex
tourism.
In other words, when 230 permits were issued to already existing brothels in the year
before the 2004 Olympics, this was interpreted by abolitionists as Greece sanctioning
a major expansion of the sex industry and, by extension, sex trafficking.74 – ‘Sexual
enslavement at the Ryder Cup?’
KAGE, a Greek sex workers union, charged that the city was encouraging illegal prostitution by
cracking down on legal brothels that would drive legal sex workers out of business (prostitution is
regulated in Greece, sex workers are required to undergo health checks and pay social insurance). 75
WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED?
No instances of trafficking for prostitution were linked to the 2004 Olympics
Some have repeated a misleading argument by the Future Group that there was a 95% increase in
trafficking in Athens. 76 To be precise, 181 trafficked persons were reported in all of 2004, which is an
increase from 93 trafficked persons that were reported in all of 2003.77 However, none of these cases
were linked to the 2004 Olympics, according to Greece’s Annual Report on Organised Crime and the
International Organisation for Migration (IOM) in Athens.78 NGOs also did not report increases in
trafficking which suggests that the higher number of reported victims was due to increased efforts to
identify victims, and better detection and reporting methods.79
Anti-trafficking efforts also included prevention measures by children’s rights NGOs (although these
focused more on outreach than awareness raising). They reported that child trafficking for prostitution
did not increase during the Olympics, and that the number of street children decreased during this
period. 80 81 Street assessments by NGOs identified and repatriated 6 trafficked children.82
A local sex worker activist noted that business didn’t improve during the Olympics, contrary to their
expectations: “No, we haven’t seen the slightest increase in demand”.83
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
23
US Super Bowls, e.g. Dallas (2011), Tampa (2009),
Phoenix (2008)
WHAT WAS PREDICTED?
Anywhere from 10,000 to 100,000 sex workers will ‘invade’, ‘flood’, be
magnetically drawn towards, or be trafficked for the Super Bowl
There has been great interest among US media around an unsubstantiated link between trafficking
and the Super Bowl. Hyperbolic claims about floods or invasions of 10,000 to 100,000 sex workers to
the Super Bowl has been widely repeated by American media, as has Texas Attorney General Greg
Abbott’s unfounded claim that “the Super Bowl is one of the biggest human trafficking events in the
United States”.84
Despite the widespread repetition of these claims, only a few journalists have questioned the plausibility
of these claims. A few journalists have pointed out that the total number of visitors to the Super Bowl
is estimated between 150,000 to 200,00085 and that at these figures, “it meant that every man, woman
and child holding a ticket would have their own personal hooker, from the vice presidential wing of
FedEx to Little Timmy from Green Bay”.86
WHAT HAS ACTUALLY HAPPENED?
Within the US, prostitution laws are specific to each state. In most states, both the sale and purchase
of sex is illegal, with a disproportionate emphasis on punishing persons who sell sex.87 The confusion
between eliminating sex work and tackling trafficking was institutionalised by the US government
under the Bush administration.88
Given the amount of media attention paid to estimates of what might happen in the lead up to the
Super Bowl, there is surprisingly little media information about what actually happened or any postevent
analysis. Below are excerpts from the only two articles we could locate that included post-event
assessments.
Phoenix hosted the big game three years ago [2008]. Police there told News 8 they
received similar warnings about an increase in prostitution and prepared for it, but
never uncovered any evidence of a spike in illegal sexual activity. “I think one of the
things people automatically assume is that while you’ve got influential people in town,
people with significant amounts of money and therefore a whole lot of prostitution is
going to follow with that,” said Phoenix police spokesman Sgt. Tommy Thompson.
“We did not notice an increase or anything out of the ordinary.” Tampa hosted the
Super Bowl in 2009. A police spokeswoman there said officers there made 11
prostitution arrests during the entire week leading up to the game. And last year
[2010], Miami police told News 8 they arrested 14 for prostitution. Those figures are
not uncommon for large cities during a seven-day period, experts said.89
– ‘Super Bowl prostitution forecast has no proof’, WFAA
“We may have had certain precincts that were going gangbusters looking for
prostitutes, but they were picking up your everyday street prostitutes.” “They didn’t
notice any sort of glitch in the number of prostitution arrests leading up to the Super
Bowl.”90 – Sergeant Tommy Thompson, Phoenix, Arizona (2008 Super Bowl).
24 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
1 For more information on the definition, see: What is human trafficking? Retrieved April 23, 2010, from United
Nations Office on Drugs and Crime website: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-humantrafficking.
html
2 Ban Ying. (2006). Comments on the first Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human rights aspects of the
victims of trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Sigma Huda: “Integration of the human rights of
women and a gender perspective, E/CN.4/2006/62, 20.2.2006 for the 62nd Session of the Commission on Human
Rights”.
3 Self-Empowerment Program for Migrant Women (SEPOM) (2010). ‘Trafficked ’ Identities as a Barrier to Community
Reintegration: Five Stories of Women Rebuilding Lives and Resisting Categorisation. GAATW Feminist Participatory
Action Research Series. Bangkok: GAATW. Available at: http://www.gaatw.org/FPAR_Series/
FPAR_SEPOM.2010.pdf
4 Richter, M. & Monson, T. (2010). Human trafficking & migration. Migration Issue Brief 4. Available online at: http://
http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/FMSP_Migration_Issue_Brief_4_Trafficking_June_2010
_doc.pdf
5 Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children. (20 February 2009). Promotion and
Protection of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to
Development. (Submitted to the 10th HRC, Agenda item 3, No. A/HRC/10/16). Geneva: United Nations.
6 E.g. UNESCO (Bangkok). Factsheet #1: Worldwide Trafficking Estimates by Organizations. Available online at:
http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Trafficking/statdatabase/
Copy_of_Graph_Worldwide__2_.pdf
7 GAATW. (2010). Beyond Borders: Exploring Links Between Trafficking and Gender. GAATW Working Papers
Series 2010. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/WP_on_Gender.pdf
8 UNESCO (Bangkok). Trafficking Statistics Project. Available online at: http://www.unescobkk.org/en/culture/
cultural-diversity/trafficking-and-hivaids-project/projects/trafficking-statistics-project/
9 Jordan, A. (2011). Fact or fiction: What do we really know about human trafficking? Program on Human
Trafficking and Forced Labour, Issue Paper 3. Washington, D.C.: American University Washington College of Law.
Available online at: http://rightswork.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Issue-Paper-3.pdf
10 Lee, E. (2011, February 3). Super Bowl hyperbole and prostitution. The Star. Available online at: http://
http://www.thestar.com/sports/football/nfl/superbowl/article/932794—super-bowl-hyperbole-and-prostitution
11 Kardas-Nelson. M. (2010, February 25). Human trafficking and the Games. Rabble.ca. Available online at: http://
rabble.ca/news/2010/02/human-trafficking-and-games
12 Milivojevi , S. & Pickering, S. (2008). Football and sex: the 2006 FIFA World Cup and sex trafficking. TEMIDA, 21-
47. Available online at: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1450-6637/2008/1450-66370802021M.pdf
13 E.g. McLaren, C. (2009, May 22). ‘Buying sex is not a sport’: sex work campaign. The Hook. Available online at: http://
thetyee.ca/Blogs/TheHook/Olympics2010/2009/05 22/CampaignProstitutionOlympics/
14 (2006, February 28). EU to fight forced prostitution during major sports events. EurActiv.com. Available online at:
http://www.euractiv.com/sports/eu-fight-forced-prostitution-major-sports-events/article-152961
15 European Union. European Parliament. (2006). European Parliament Resolution on forced prostitution in the
context of world sport events.
Available online at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/FindByProcnum.do?lang=en&procnum=RSP/2006/2508
16 European Union. European Parliament. (2006). European Parliament Resolution on forced prostitution in the
context of world sport events.
Available online at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/FindByProcnum.do?lang=en&procnum=RSP/2006/2508
17 Council of the European Union. (2006, April 27-28). 2725th Council Meeting: Justice and Home Affairs (press
release). Luxembourg: Justice and Home Affairs. Available online at: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2006/apr/jha-
27-28-april-press-rel.pdf
18 Lee, E. (2011, February 3). Super Bowl hyperbole and prostitution. The Star. Available online at: http://
http://www.thestar.com/sports/football/nfl/superbowl/article/932794—super-bowl-hyperbole-and-prostitution
19 Richter, M. & Massawe, D. (2010). Serious soccer, sex (work) and HIV – will South Africa be too hot to handle
during the 2010 World Cup? South African Medical Journal, 100 (4), 222-223. Available online at: http://
http://www.samj.org.za/files/2.pdf
20 Lepp, A. (2010). Gender, racialisation and mobility: Human trafficking and the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic
Games. Alliance News, 33, 47-51. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/Alliance%20News/
Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
21 Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup and the consequences of
an unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
22 Carpenter, L. (2010, June 10). Debunking World Cup’s biggest myth. Yahoo! Sports. Available online at: http://
g.sports.yahoo.com/soccer/world-cup/news/debunking-world-cups-biggest-myth—fbintl_lc-prostitutes061010.html
23 E.g. (2010, March 5). World Cup 2010: 40,000 prostitutes to enter South Africa. The Telegraph. Available online at:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/competitions/world-cup-2010/7374301/World-Cup-2010-40000-
prostitutes-to-enter-South-Africa.html
Skoch, I. (2010, October 7). World Cup welcome: A billion condoms and 40,000 sex workers. GlobalPost. Available
online at: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/sports/100505/world-cup-sex-workers?page=0,0
Cherner, R. (2010, June 15). World Cup: A billion condoms may not be enough. USA Today. Available online at:
http://content.usatoday.com/communities/gameon/post/2010/06/world-cup-a-billion-condoms-may-not-be-enough/1
24 E.g. Ajam, K. (2010). Trafficking of people, the Cup crisis that never was. IOL News. Available online at: http://
http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/trafficking-of-people-the-cup-crisis-that-never-was-1.490109
Robertson, D. (2010, April 13). Spotlight on human trafficking before World Cup in South Africa. Voice of America.
Available online at: file:///Z:/PowerInMigration&Work%20-%20Demand/Print%20media%20-
%20trafficking%20sporting%20events/1-DONE/VOA%20-%20SA%20World%20Cup%20trafficking%
20exaggerated.htm
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
25
25 Bialik, C. (2010, June 19). Suspect estimates of sex trafficking at the World Cup. Wall Street Journal. Available
online at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704289504575312853491596916.html
26 Carpenter, L. (2010, June 10). Debunking World Cup’s biggest myth. Yahoo! Sports. Available online at: http://
g.sports.yahoo.com/soccer/world-cup/news/debunking-world-cups-biggest-myth—fbintl_lc-prostitutes061010.html
27 Bialik, C. (2010, June 19). Suspect estimates of sex trafficking at the World Cup. Wall Street Journal. Available
online at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704289504575312853491596916.html
28 Portfolio Committee on Justice. (2010, August 3). World Cup dedicated courts; Human trafficking during 2010
Soccer World Cup. Department of Justice briefing. Available online at: http://www.pmg.org.za/report/20100803-
department-justice-constitutional-development-dedicated-courts-conven
29 Harper, E., Massawe, D. & Richter, M. (2010). Report on the 2010 Soccer World Cup and Sex Work: Documenting
Successes and Failures. FMSP Research Report. Johannesburg: Forced Migration Studies Programme (University
of the Witwatersrand). Available online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/
Report_on_the_2010_Soccer_World_Cup_and_Sex_Work_-_Documenting_Successes_and_Failures.pdf
30 For more information, visit the Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) website at http://www.sweat.org.za.
31 Delva, W. (undated). Female sex work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup: No spike in supply and demand of paid sex
through newspaper and online advertising. International Centre for Reproductive Health (Ghent University). Available
online at: http://www.icrh.org/news/female-sex-work-and-the-2010-soccer-world-cup-no-spike-in-supply-and-demandof-
paid-sex-through
32 Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”: Research findings
regarding the impact of the 2010 Soccer World Cup on sex work in South Africa. Johannesburg: UNFPA. Available
online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/sweat_report.pdf
33 Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”: Research findings
regarding the impact of the 2010 Soccer World Cup on sex work in South Africa. Johannesburg: UNFPA. Available
online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/sweat_report.pdf
34 Kelto, A. (2010, July 6). World Cup avoids flood of sex workers. National Public Radio. Available online at: http://
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128342077
35 Thakali, T. & Bailey, C. (2010, June 19). No ‘boom boom’ for Joburg’s sex workers. IOL News. Available online at:
http://www.iol.co.za/sport/no-boom-boom-for-joburg-s-sex-workers-1.490629
36 Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”: Research findings
regarding the impact of the 2010 Soccer World Cup on sex work in South Africa. Johannesburg: UNFPA. Available
online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/sweat_report.pdf
37 E.g. The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human trafficking at the 2010 Olympics.
Calgary: The Future Group.
(2007, November 2). Human trafficking a Games pitfall, researcher warns. Vancouver Sun. Available online at: http://
http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/business/story.html?id=c8b93773-4373-465c-92a3-4c5af740bec7
(2009, May 21). Campaign to raise awareness of potential sex trafficking at 2010 Games. The Canadian Press.
Available online at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/05/21/bc-olympic-buying-sex.html
Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity (REED). Buying Sex is Not a Sport. Available online at: http://embracedignity.org/
?page=buyingsexisnotasport
38 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games:
Assessments and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available
online at: http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
39 Lepp, A. (2010, July 6). Understanding Trafficking and Human Rights in the Context of Migration, Labour, Gender
and Globalisation at Beyond Borders: Trafficking in the Context of Migrant, Labour and Women’s Rights – GAATW
International Members Congress and Conference, Bangkok, Thailand. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/
publications/IMCC2010_Report.pdf
40 (2009, September 28). New anti-sex-trafficking campaign before Games: police. CBC News. Available online at:
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/09/28/bc-salvation-army-human-sex-traffickingpolice.
html
41 Kardas-Nelson. M. (2010, February 25). Human trafficking and the Games. Rabble.ca. Available online at: http://
rabble.ca/news/2010/02/human-trafficking-and-games
42 (2009, September 28). New anti-sex-trafficking campaign before Games: police. CBC News. Available online at:
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/09/28/bc-salvation-army-human-sex-traffickingpolice.
html
43 Lepp, A. (2010). Gender, racialisation and mobility: Human trafficking and the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic
Games. Alliance News, 33, 47-51. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/Alliance%20News/
Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
44 Dr. Annalee Lepp (University of Victoria) plans to release research findings from a research project on the
Olympics, trafficking and sex work, in the fall/winter of 2011.
45 i.e. Sections 210-213 of the Canadian Criminal Code. For more information, see http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-
46/
46 Deering, K. N. (2011). Sex work safety, human trafficking and the 2010 winter olympics in Canada. Canadian Journal
of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology Conference: 20th Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research:
Honouring our History, Embracing our Diversity, CAHR 2011 Toronto, ON Canada, 14-17 April 2011.
47 Dr. Annalee Lepp (University of Victoria) plans to release research findings from a research project on the
Olympics, trafficking and sex work, in the fall/winter of 2011.
48 Shannon, E. (2010). Sex workers’ rights and Olympic anti-trafficking rhetoric. Alliance News, 33, 27-31. Available
online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/Alliance%20News/Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
49 Drummond, K. (2010, March 3). Vancouver sex workers had ‘an amazing two weeks’. AOL News.. Available online
at: http://www.aolnews.com/2010/03/03/vancouver-sex-workers-had-an-amazing-two-weeks/
50 Lee, E. (2011, February 3). Super Bowl hyperbole and prostitution. The Star. Available online at: http://
http://www.thestar.com/sports/football/nfl/superbowl/article/932794—super-bowl-hyperbole-and-prostitution
26 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
51 Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup and the consequences of
an unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
52 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in
Germany. IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/
myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
53 Milivojevi , S. & Pickering, S. (2008). Football and sex: the 2006 FIFA World Cup and sex trafficking.
TEMIDA, 21-47. Available online at: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1450-6637/2008/1450-66370802021M.pdf
54 (2006, April 26). World Cup concerns Nordic council. Norden.org. Available online at: http://www.norden.org/en/
news-and-events/news/world-cup-concerns-nordic-council/
55 Council of Europe. (2006). 2006 World Cup: PACE asks FIFA to join the fight against trafficking in women.
Strasbourg: Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. Available online at: http://assembly.coe.int/ASP/Press/
StopPressView.asp?ID=1759
56 Tavella, A.M. (2007). Sex trafficking and the 2006 World Cup in Germany: Concerns, actions and implications for
future international sporting events. Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, 6(1), 196-217. Available
online at: http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/jihr/v6/n1/8/Tavella.pdf
57 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in
Germany. IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/
myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
58 Milivojevi , S. (2008). Women’s bodies, moral panic and the world game: Sex trafficking, the 2006 Football World
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59 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games:
Assessments and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available
online at: http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
60 (2006, February 28). EU to fight forced prostitution during major sports events. EurActiv.com. Available online at:
http://www.euractiv.com/sports/eu-fight-forced-prostitution-major-sports-events/article-152961
61 Tzortzis, A. (2006, May 5). World Cup goal: Stem prostitution. The Christian Science Monitor. Available online at:
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62 International Organisation for Migration (IOM). (2007). Research on Trafficking in Human Beings and the 2006
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myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/projects/showcase_pdf/WorldCup2006.pdf
63 German Delegation of the Council of the European Union. (2007, January 19). Experience Report on Human
Trafficking for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation and Forced Prostitution in Connection with the 2006 Football
World Cup in Germany, 5006/1/07. Presented to the Multidisciplinary Group on Organised Crime of the Council of the
European Union. Available online at: http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/07/st05/st05006-re01.en07.pdf
64 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in
Germany. IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/
myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
65 Ban Ying. (2006). Where are the 40.000? Statement on Trafficking during the World Cup. Available online at:
http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcupstatement.pdf
66 Ban Ying. (2006). Where are the 40.000? Statement on Trafficking during the World Cup. Available online at:
http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcupstatement.pdf
67 La Strada International. (2006, October). La Strada International Newsletter, Issue 3. Available online at:
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68 Loewenberg, S. (2006). Fears of World Cup sex trafficking boom unfounded. The Lancet, 368(8), 105-106
69 (2006, July 6). Feared Surge in World Cup Prostitution Proves Unfounded. Deutsche Welle. Available online at:
http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2079721,00.html
70 Council of the European Union. (2007, January 19). Experience Report on Human Trafficking for the Purpose of
Sexual Exploitation and Forced Prostitution in Connection with the 2006 Football World Cup in Germany [5006/1/
07, REV 1]. Available online at: http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/07/st05/st05006-re01.en07.pdf
71 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments and
recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
72 (2003, July 23). Anger over Greek Olympic brothels. BBC News. Available online at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/
3091209.stm
73 Tzilivakis, K. (2004, August 27). Red-light workers get the blues. Athens News. Available online at: http://www.athensnews.gr/
old_issue/13091/11931
74 Paterson, S. (2010, September 29). Sexual enslavement at the Ryder Cup? spiked. Available online at: http://www.spikedonline.
com/index.php/site/article/9712/
75 Tzilivakis, K. (2004, August 27). Red-light workers get the blues. Athens News. Available online at: http://www.athensnews.gr/
old_issue/13091/11931
76 The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human trafficking at the 2010 Olympics. Calgary: The Future
Group.
77 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Hellenic Republic, Progress Report on the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in
Persons, 2004, p. 9 as cited in Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup and the
consequences of an unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/
Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
78 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany. IOM
Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/
published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE
27
79 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments and
recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
80 The Protection Project (2004, November 25) as cited in The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human
trafficking at the 2010 Olympics. Calgary: The Future Group.
81 ARSIS (2004) as cited in Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006
World Cup in Germany. IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/
myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
82 US State Department (2005) as cited in Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety
and the 2010 Games: Assessments and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG).
Available online at: http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
83 Tzilivakis, K. (2004, August 27). Red-light workers get the blues. Athens News. Available online at: http://www.athensnews.gr/
old_issue/13091/11931
84 E.g. Ryan, K.M. (2011, January 31). Let’s not let the Super Bowl be a business opportunity for sex traffickers.
Huffington Post. Available online at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kevin-m-ryan/post_1653_b_816311.html
Goodman, M. (2011, February 1). Super Bowl a magnet for under-age sex trade. Reuters. Available online at: http://
http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/01/us-nfl-superbowl-sex-idUSTRE70U6F820110201
Van de Putte, L. (2011, February 2). Super Bowl a magnet for human traffickers. San Antonio Express News.
Available online at: http://www.mysanantonio.com/opinion/commentary/article/Super-Bowl-a-magnet-for-humantraffickers-
990483.php
(2011, February 1). Police watch for sex trafficking ahead of big game. Associated Press. Available online at: http://
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/02/01/ap/national/main7304578.shtml
85 Lee, E. (2011, February 3). Super Bowl hyperbole and prostitution. The Star. Available online at: http://
http://www.thestar.com/sports/football/nfl/superbowl/article/932794—super-bowl-hyperbole-and-prostitution
86 Kotz, P. (2011, January 27). The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers won’t be showing up in Dallas.
Dallas Observer. Available online at: http://www.dallasobserver.com/2011-01-27/news/the-super-bowl-prostitutemyth-
100-000-hookers-won-t-be-showing-up-in-dallas/
87 Huckerby, J. (2007). United States [book chapter]. In GAATW (Ed.), Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-
Trafficking Measures on Human Rights Around the World. Bangkok: GAATW. Available online at: http://
http://www.gaatw.org/Collateral%20Damage_Final/CollateralDamage_BRAZIL.pdf
88 E.g. U.S. Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. (2011). Prevention: Fighting
Sex Trafficking by Curbing Demand for Prostitution [factsheet]. Available online at: http://www.state.gov/
documents/organization/167329.pdf
U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. (2004). The Link Between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking
[factsheet].
89 Whitely, J. (2011, January 31). Super Bowl prostitution forecast has no proof. WFAA. Available online at: http://
http://www.wfaa.com/sports/football/super-bowl/Super-Bowl-prostitution-prediction-has-no-proof—114983179.html
90 Kotz, P. (2011, January 27). The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers won’t be showing up in Dallas.
Dallas Observer. Available online at: http://www.dallasobserver.com/2011-01-27/news/the-super-bowl-prostitutemyth-
100-000-hookers-won-t-be-showing-up-in-dallas/
DE-CONSTRUCTING
A RUMOUR
30 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
If there isn’t any evidence, why is
the connection still made?
Doesn’t all this attention mean
something’s going on?
Despite the lack of evidence, it’s striking to see how much interest this issue still holds for some
media, politicians and prostitution abolitionist groups. The resilience of this claim is partly due to:
• its usefulness as a fundraising strategy,
• as a way to grab the media or the public’s attention,
• being a quick, easy way to ‘do something’ about trafficking, and
• its usefulness in justifying social control measures (e.g. anti-migration measures,
crackdowns on sex workers) and cultivating ‘moral panics’.91
The media has jumped onto a rumour and unfortunately some NGOs are using it for
publicity.92 – Ban Ying (Germany), an anti-trafficking organisation and GAATW member
Of course, we in the media are equally culpable. We dutifully relay the fraud via our
Patented Brand of Unquestioning Stenography, rarely bothering to check if it’s remotely
plausible. And by this time, there’s no going back. The fraud must be upheld. Charities
have raised money to help the innocents. Politicians have brayed and task forces
have been appointed. Editors and news directors have ordered five-part series. No
one wants to look like a moron.93 – ‘The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers
won’t be showing up in Dallas’, Dallas Observer (US)
Internationally, human trafficking is a highly visible issue and national governments are frequently
called upon to improve their efforts to fight human trafficking. At the same time, some governments
have been critiqued for not doing enough to address the root causes of trafficking, such as poverty.
Large sporting events can provide a chance for governments to visibly affirm their commitment to
fighting trafficking while leaving more politically charged issues untouched (such as the link between
restrictive migration policies and human trafficking94).
The supposed link between sporting events and trafficking for prostitution first gained international
attention in the lead up to the 2004 Athens Olympics. The attention didn’t come from organisations
working directly with trafficked persons but rather came from Northern European governments who
criticised the Greek government’s policies on regulating prostitution.95
But why is this idea so appealing? Even if numerous law enforcement and anti-trafficking campaigns
have not detected the massive ‘floods’ predicted, why does it still sound plausible? Like other
unsubstantiated ‘moral panics’ (e.g. ‘white slavery’), it could be due to a combination of ideas about
women’s sexuality, foreign or racial threats, ‘evil perpetrators’ and ‘suitable victims’.96
Profoundly this scare speaks to an elite fear of unpredictable movements across
borders, of working-class male behaviour, and of Third World women being easily
tricked into a life of sexual bondage.97 – ‘Stop this illicit trade in bullshit stories’,
spiked
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
31
‘Better victims’
For some, the simplistic cause and effect argument is an easier fit (e.g. for some media, politicians)
than the complexities and ambiguities that trafficking actually involves. In other words, it offers audiences
an easy way of “feeling good about feeling bad”.98 GAATW members and anti-trafficking practitioners
have remarked on how useful the powerless female trafficking victim identity is in generating public
interest and attracting funds, sometimes to the detriment of other issues.99 By comparison, encouraging
more thoughtful discussion on migrants’ rights and strategies for survival can result in xenophobic or
racist backlash and less public, media and donor interest.
So how do these myths get started? Through good intentions, of course. But it’s hard
to kindle interest in the world’s oldest profession. So they latch onto the occasional
news story or CNN special. After all, children in distress sell. “Underage girls make
better victims, better poster children,” says [Maggie] McNeill [The Honest Courtesan],
a former librarian with a master’s from LSU. “I’m 44. What kind of believable victim
would I make?”100 – ‘The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers won’t be
showing up in Dallas’, Dallas Observer (US)
“This is an issue as I’ve suggested that appeals to people’s emotions – they are afraid
of what is happening, it is obviously not a good thing; and it appeals I think to the
savior mentality of a lot of western countries, and a lot of westerners about trying to
fix the problems of the third world.”101 – Dr. Loren Landau, University of the
Witwatersrand (South Africa)
Assumptions about sports and masculinity
The hype around sporting events and trafficking for prostitution relies on hetero-normative or heterosexist
notions about masculinity and femininity. Crowds are assumed to be predominantly male crowds
demanding commercial sex, and women are only visible as targets for men’s ‘demand’.
“There are large volumes of people coming and they are men. They are away from
home and alcohol is flowing and they want sex.”102 – Christine MacMillan, Salvation
Army
However, reports found that many of the visitors and spectators at the 2006 World Cup (Germany) and
the 2010 World Cup (South Africa) comprised families, women, couples, and mixed groups.103 In
South Africa, fears of trafficking partially stemmed from the idea of “rowdy male fans” being the only
visitors that would be willing to visit a country with high crime rates, which turned out to be false.104
Two South African publications challenged the focus on sex workers as the only representation of
women around the World Cup. Agenda magazine105 and the Gender Media Diversity Journal106 both
devoted an issue to exploring some of the other gendered issues around the World Cup, such as
issues impacting women construction workers, women entrepreneurs (e.g. street vendors), women
spectators, women athletes and other women involved in sports (e.g. referees).
“[T]he only gendered conversations I have heard surrounding 2010 are those of sex
work. I am not sure if the Department of Tourism has thought about linking the
various women owned hospitality companies to various tourism activities they have
lined up for 2010.”107 – Dr. Elaine Salo, Gender Institute at the University of Pretoria,
South Africa
The response to women at the 2006 World Cup is telling….Even the media
preoccupation with forced prostitution contributed to the larger fantasy engendered
by the World Cup. The connection between sex, football and men is so taken for
granted that no one seems to have questioned its presumption. On the other hand,
32 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
women as fans – both in the flesh and from a distance – were not considered during
this ‘male World Cup’, despite constituting 40 to 50 percent of the fan base.108 –
Margot Rubin
Prostitution abolitionist agendas
The groups that have argued the loudest about this link have typically been groups calling for an end
to sex work. They have argued that an increase in sex work results in an increase in trafficking, and
that sex work should be eradicated because trafficking can occur in the sex trade.109 These groups
also see male customers ultimately as the cause for commercial sex.110
Members of the Canadian public and those visiting Canada during the 2010 Olympics
need to be advised of laws against sexual exploitation and human trafficking. This is
particularly necessary because some visitors will come from countries where
prostitution is legal, and it is critical that the demand for sexually exploitative activities
not be permitted to spike.111 – The Future Group, a prostitution abolitionist/antitrafficking
organisation (Canada)
This argument has been criticized by anti-trafficking organisations (including GAATW) for confusing
trafficking with prostitution and muddying efforts to genuinely address trafficking (in various sectors).
Getting rid of a sector because it can include trafficked labour is not a strategy that is supported by
many anti-trafficking advocates. For example, although domestic violence has been identified as a
serious issue in marriages, few have publicly argued that the institution of marriage should be abolished
to eradicate domestic violence. Likewise, human rights violations against people working in the
agriculture sector have been documented in numerous countries. Yet no organisations are calling for
the abolition of agricultural work, but rather for greater protection of workers’ rights and enforcement of
labour standards. Sex workers rights organisations and sex worker allies (including GAATW), have
also protested abolitionist approaches towards sex work, who logically argue that these efforts often
end up criminalising, stigmatising or threatening sex workers’ health, safety, and income. On the
other hand, sex workers rights and their allies argue that decriminalising sex work can increase sex
workers’ power over their working conditions, foster cooperation with police, and allow sex workers to
contribute to anti-trafficking efforts (also see ‘Decriminalise sex work’ on page 62).
The prostitution abolitionist movement claims not to victimise women by instead stigmatising men
who seek commercial sexual services.112 However, sex workers rights organisations have protested
efforts to criminalise sex workers clients, arguing that it jeopardises sex workers’ safety and income.
As stated, World Cup fears concerning the number of women and girls who might be
trafficked into Germany for the purpose of sexual exploitation also presented for
some a tangible opportunity to lobby against the legalization of prostitution in
Germany.113 – Jana Hennig, Sarah Craggs, Frank Laczko and Fred Larsson
One of the main divisions between the prostitution abolitionist movement and the sex workers rights
movement is that the abolitionist don’t accept that women can choose to engage in sex work. Or, if
women choose to engage in sex work, they argue that their choice does not count as ‘real choice’ or
that their consent does not need to be respected.114 Sex workers rights organisations argue that
ignoring women who choose to engage in sex work is a violation of women’s rights and perpetuates
gender inequality by disregarding women’s consent.115
“One of the most ardently advocated feminist principles is that ‘no means no’. Ironically,
according to some feminists, for sex workers, yes does not mean yes. Until our
consent is treated with the same respect as that of any other woman, violence against
sex workers will not be stopped.” – International Union of Sex Workers
In the lead up to the 2006 World Cup (Germany), the US government used fears of trafficking to
promote its abolitionist stance and to criticise Germany’s policy of legalising prostitution.
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
33
[S]ince the matches are being held in Germany, which legalized pimping and
prostitution in 2001, the World Cup fans would be legally free to rape women in
brothels… Of the approximately 400.000 prostitutes in Germany, it is estimated that
75 percent of those who are abused in these houses of prostitution are foreigners,
many from Central and Eastern Europe.116 – Christopher H. Smith, US House of
Representatives’ Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights and International
Operations, 2006
The argument that trafficking in humans and prostitution are inexorably linked is in
part due to policy decisions made by the United States. Although much international
dialogue surrounding both trafficking and prostitution claims prostitution and trafficking
are often linked, the extent of this link is debated.117 – New Zealand Government,
Ministry of Justice
‘Foreign threats’
Discussions on the supposed link between trafficking and international sporting events have also
included suspicious sentiments about those entering the country. In articles about the 2010 South
Africa World Cup, news articles referred to the country’s ‘porous borders’ as a factor that could
increase the likelihood of trafficking.118 119 The Future Group argued that allowing people to enter the
country legally would result in trafficking victims disguised as legal tourists and visitors.120 121
Coordinators must protect the host country’s citizenry, foreign athletes, and tourists
from all over the world… they must prevent clandestine activities from thriving in the
presence of large groups of foreigners.122 – Samantha McRoskey
I support the increased efforts, announced by the Government, to detect and rescue
victims of trafficking by allowing border officials to conduct separate interviews at all
airports for women and children travelling with an adult who is not a parent, guardian
or husband.123 – Lord Sheikh (UK), Lords Debate on human trafficking, 14 October
2010
Contrary to the fears detailed above, restricting travel requirements can increase the risk of trafficking.124
When people are able to travel freely on their own (e.g. eligible to apply for travel visas), they are less
likely to require the services of traffickers and brokers to enter another country.
Years of implementing a restrictive approach to migration and immigration policies by
the EU have not resulted in a decreased migration, but rather have left migrants more
vulnerable to irregular forms of migration, including smuggling and trafficking for
labour and other forms of exploitation.125 – Excerpt from joint statement by GAATW
and La Strada International
This bias also thrives on race- and class stereotyping of women, as evidenced by the
South African Serious and Violent Crimes Unit submission to the earlier Issue Paper
on Trafficking in Persons. The unit claimed it knew trafficking had increased in South
Africa because ‘border control have noticed suspicious foreigners entering the country
accompanied by young Asian women’ (South African Law Reform Commission, 2004).
These types of xenophobic comments led the SALRC to suggest that certain countries
be designated as countries of origin or destination for human trafficking and that
citizens of these countries be subjected to rigorous procedures at South African
border posts. Clearly, this would amount to a human rights infringement.126 – Anna
Weekes, Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT), South Africa
34 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Is it possible that the media and
political hype actually helped
prevent trafficking from
occurring?
Some prostitution abolitionist organisations and media have argued that the absence of trafficking
increases during large sporting events proves that the media and political hype helped prevent trafficking
from occurring.127
For example, some media repeated a misleading argument by the Future Group that there was a 95%
increase in trafficking in Athens because prevention efforts hadn’t been as extensive as measures
during the 2006 World Cup in Berlin.128 129 To be precise, 181 trafficked persons were reported in all of
2004, which is an increase from 93 trafficked persons that were reported in all of 2003.130 However,
none of these cases were linked to the 2004 Olympics, according to Greece’s Annual Report on
Organised Crime and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) in Athens.131 In addition, the
Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs funded free legal aid for trafficking victims, training for judges and
prosecutors, a national victims’ hotline, an information campaign on disease prevention, increased
enforcement efforts, 3 government shelters, and 3 million Euros to non-governmental organisations
(NGOs) to provide assistance services.132 133
There may a number of reasons why trafficking has not occurred around large sporting events, why
business slows down for sex workers, and why traffickers may not be interested large sporting events
(see page 43). It’s also important to remember that the first media interest on this issue (around the
2004 Athens Olympics) was due to governments criticising Greece’s regulation policies around sex
work, not because of any increases observed by NGOs or service providers.134
[T]here is no conclusive evidence indicating that an increase in trafficking would have
occurred without these campaigns.135 – Victoria Hayes
It’s also hard to believe that media hype prevented trafficking from occurring when we take a closer
look at the content of various anti-trafficking campaigns by prostitution abolitionist groups. For example,
the abolitionist-driven anti-trafficking campaigns around the 2010 Vancouver Olympics confused trafficking
with sex work and relied on extremely negative imagery about women.136 In South Africa, Dr. Chandr
Gould remarked that many of the anti-trafficking campaigns around the 2010 World Cup “bear the
characteristics of what is described as ‘moral panic’.”137
In contrast, a number of the anti-trafficking campaigns prior to the 2006 Berlin World Cup explicitly
stated they were not campaigning against prostitution itself (prostitution is legal in Germany), but
rather targeting trafficking for prostitution.138 Two campaigns, “Stop Forced Prostitution” and “Action
Against Forced Prostitution” focused on their messages that sex workers’ clients could act responsibly
and contribute to anti-trafficking efforts.139 Although these campaigns may not have affected actual
incidences of trafficking, they may have more accurately helped the public (particularly clients) to
identify trafficking.
It’s too easy
to construct
an issue
(when there
is no
evidence),
call for large
resources to
‘attack’ the
issue, then
claim
success
when nothing
happens.
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
35
One information campaign, “Final Whistle – Stop Forced Prostitution” explicitly stated that rights,
respect and working conditions for sex workers need to be strengthened in order to address trafficking
for prostitution.
Existing rights for prostitutes need to be expanded in order to improve working
conditions, to ensure that services are voluntary and independent, and to combat
social stigma. We have to make sure that the human rights of prostitutes are upheld
and that prostitutes themselves are treated with respect by society at large and by
their clients in particular. Respectful treatment of prostitutes, however, must be
combined with resolute measures taken against forced prostitution.140
All this is not to deny the importance of awareness-raising campaigns and other prevention efforts. We
do want anti-trafficking campaigns to be successful and to have a genuine impact in decreasing
trafficking. However, it’s crucial to be honest about the strategies we use, considering the huge amount
of resources channelled into anti-trafficking efforts. It’s too easy to construct an issue (when there is
no evidence), call for large resources to ‘attack’ the issue, then claim success when nothing happens.
Justifying resource-intensive campaigns on unsubstantiated links becomes more of a concern when
resources are genuinely needed to address trafficking elsewhere.
36 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Even if there isn’t any evidence,
is there any harm in publicising
this issue? What are the
“consequences of an unscreened
rumour”?141
It is crucial for any anti-trafficking activities to be grounded in evidence and the concerns of directly
affected groups.
Trafficking is a very serious human rights violation that needs to be tackled effectively. However,
GAATW’s Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights Around the
World (2007) found that uncritical and uninformed anti-trafficking efforts can too often result in human
rights violations against the very groups they are intended to protect.142 In the 8 countries studied,
trafficked women were denied assistance unless they agreed to cooperate with law enforcement.
Women were locked up in shelters or detention centres, in the name of ‘protecting’ them. Trafficked
persons were deported back to their place of origin without consideration of the risks. And men who
had been trafficked received little assistance.
Anti-trafficking can also very easily be used as a more socially acceptable guise for prostitution
abolitionist, anti-migrant and anti-women’s rights rhetoric. The anti-trafficking rhetoric that has been
used most frequently around international sporting events has too often focused on criminalising
groups affected by trafficking (e.g. by justifying crackdowns against sex workers) and victimising them
(e.g. media representations of migrant women as helpless victims).
The Experts Group would like to underline that all activities in connection with this
[2006 World Cup] or other similar events should not be misinterpreted or
instrumentalised to discriminate against prostitutes or to further marginalise or
stigmatise them, thus increasing their vulnerability to trafficking and other forms of
violence and abuse.143 – Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European
Commission
I am concerned with how the World Cup is arguably another illustration of merging
punitive border protection, the criminalization of women, and the undermining of
women’s human rights, under the cover of protection of women.144 – Dr. Sanja
Milivojevi , University of New South Wales (Australia)
WASTING NEEDED RESOURCES
The amount of resources (e.g. charities, task forces, media) given to a sensationalised issue is
diverting resources and attention from other priorities that are genuinely affecting trafficked victims,
sex workers, migrants and women.145 146 147 148
Anti-trafficking organisations have argued that most of the resources for anti-trafficking activities around
large sporting events have gone into highly publicised, and misleading, media campaigns, rather into
services for trafficked persons:
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
37
[L]arge sums are being spent on national campaigns without a joint concept which
are meant to reach both the women affected as well as clients of sex workers. While
these hectic activities took place, which ensure big media interest for the big
associations, the question where all those additional trafficked women could turn to,
was neglected…..This leads to the suspicion that the goal is mainly to increase one’s
own reputation by using the issue of trafficking in human beings.149 – Dr. Nivedita
Prasad & Babette Rohner, Ban Ying, an anti-trafficking organisation (Germany) and
GAATW member
Another NGO reported a case of two African victims of THB [trafficking in human
beings], who spoke a rare African language and where the only locally available
interpreter had requested a fee somewhat above the usual rate. The NGO had not
been able to receive the needed 400 Euro additional funding from the relevant
authorities for the interpreter to accompany the women to first medical examinations
and appointments with the social authorities.150 – Jana Hennig, Sarah Craggs, Frank
Laczko and Fred Larsson
There is also concern that providing resources for an unsubstantiated issue may result in funding
organisations who are not adequately informed to provide anti-trafficking services, and who could
potentially harm people who are referred to them.
The focus on a supposed link between large sporting events and trafficking for prostitution also results
in “blind spots”, ignoring or distracting the public from more urgent and long-term issues, such as:
• Other forms of trafficking:
Emphasis on trafficking for sexual exploitation diverts attention from less sensational
aspects of labour exploitation, such as the exploitation of undocumented migrants and of
vulnerable workers in largely unregulated or unmonitored sectors such as domestic work,
farm labour and forms of casualised construction work.151 – Marlise Richter & Tamlyn
Monson, Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of the Witwatersrand, South
Africa
• Violence against women and migrants, including sex workers:
Other human rights abuses, which are well documented as being highly prevalent in South
and Southern Africa, receive less attention and resources by welfare and advocacy
organisations, the media, and government, due to the attention and resources dedicated
to human trafficking prevention. Such abuses include rape and other forms of genderbased
violence, and various forms of violence perpetrated by human smugglers and gangs
upon undocumented migrants crossing South Africa’s land borders.152 – Marlise Richter &
Tamlyn Monson, Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of the Witwatersrand,
South Africa
• Sex workers’ rights:
In response to this media frenzy and public fears, a number of national and international
organisations invested in the distribution of condoms, generalised HIV and AIDS information
campaigns for South Africans and visitors, and rolled out anti-trafficking campaigns. Yet,
very little support concentrated on the sexual and reproductive health and rights of most
at risk populations such as sex workers. Few actors engaged with sex workers on their
needs and expectations of the World Cup.153 – Mark Bryan Schreiner, UN Population
Fund
• Urban issues such as the lack of affordable housing, rising house rates and urban
displacement related to Olympic-related urban development; homelessness, poverty,
addiction, HIV and mental illness. In Vancouver, sex workers groups protested the shortterm
focus of Olympics-related anti-trafficking campaigns and called for more attention
towards long-term violence and housing issues.154
38 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Source: The Union of Finnish Feminists, Finland
MISREPRESENTING PEOPLE AND ISSUES ULTIMATELY
UNDERMINES ANTI-TRAFFICKING OBJECTIVES
Trivialising trafficking
Some anti-trafficking stakeholders are concerned that sensationalising a false link between large
sporting events and trafficking ultimately undermines serious efforts to fight trafficking and assist
victims.
All experts (NGOs and police) had experienced an increased interest from the media
and tried their best to respond. Many were disappointed by journalists who were just
after “sex-n’-crime” stories and further support of the 40,000 figure, without much
interest in other accounts. Some NGOs felt they had first been ignored by the media
with their assessment of a moderate increase in trafficking or even none at all; after
the World Cup some press articles blamed the NGOs across-the board for putting up
a wrong and unfounded figure.155 – Jana Hennig, Sarah Craggs, Frank Laczko and
Fred Larsson
Perpetuating sexual and racial stereotypes
“The more stereotyped you are, the more dehumanized you are.”156 – Pye Jacobson,
Swedish sex worker and activist
For sex workers, however, these false claims became a form of symbolic
violence….The abolitionist anti-trafficking rhetoric was so painful that one sex worker
was moved to investigate whether she could charge some of the abolitionist groups
with hate crimes.157 – Esther Shannon, FIRST, a sex worker ally group (Canada) and
GAATW member
Public awareness campaigns and media depictions of trafficking have been key in promoting particular
ideas about what victims of trafficking look like, where they come from, and what they’re capable (or
incapable) of. It is important to think carefully about the underlying messages anti-trafficking campaigns
are communicating about women.
Some anti-trafficking campaigns have tried to capture the public’s attention by displaying graphic
images of violence against women and the weakness of women.158 Media articles on trafficked victims
routinely describe victims as frightened, powerless, weak, gullible, and unable to make decisions for
themselves.
Trafficking for prostitution has been described by
prostitution abolitionist as meeting a demand.159 Yet
the use of eroticised and violent imagery in antitrafficking
campaigns is rationalised as the need to
meet media and public ‘demand’, i.e. to make
trafficking sexy enough for media and public
consumption. Stories of victimhood typically generate
a great deal of interest and can be used strategically
by media and NGOs to, respectively, gain readers
and increase charitable donations. While trafficking
is obvious exploitation, the focus on one-on-one
violence maintains the status quo by excluding
discussion on the broader social and economic
contexts that contribute to trafficking (e.g. lack of legal
migration opportunities for working-class women). The
use of racialised women in Western anti-trafficking
public awareness campaigns also often end up
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
39
defining certain groups of women in need of assistance from women in wealthier countries, e.g. female
victims from the Global South needing rescue.
Relying on explicit and sexualised images of violence can end up perpetuating negative stereotypes of
sex workers and migrant women as weak, passive, helpless, gullible and in need of rescue.160 161
These representations can also end up justifying measures to control women’s behaviour, determine
women’s morality, and rationalise women’s resistance as the behaviour of women who are incapable
of making their own decisions.
Anti-trafficking measures affected not only German sex workers, but also women
from the supposed countries of origin who, for whatever reason, wanted to visit Germany
during the World Cup. As women in danger of being trafficked for sex during the
World Cup were constructed as young, naive women from Eastern and Central Europe
(Ekklesia 2006, Haape 2006, Tzortzis 2006), who seek “a life free of poverty or
abuse” (Neuwirth 2006) but instead end up being severely victimized, their bodies
have been yet again constructed as weak and vulnerable.162 – Dr. Sanja Milivojevi
(University of New South Wales), Australia
The moralistic approach, which assumes that women do not know their own minds
(Agustin, 2005) has to be dismissed: western governments, international and religious
organizations, and western feminist scholarship need to abandon their ‘colonial gaze’
(Mohanty, 1998) and broad generalizations.163 – Dr. Sanja Milivojevi (University of
New South Wales) and Dr. Sharon Pickering (Monash University)
Media and public pressure around trafficking for prostitution could result in tighter entrance restrictions
or the profiling of particular racial or ethnic groups as ‘potential’ trafficked persons. In the name of
preventing trafficking, some governments have developed restrictive entry policies denying women of
certain ages or certain appearance from entering a country. For instance, research at the San Paulo
airport found that Brazilian women were being refused entry and repatriated from European airports
because they were suspected of being in the sex industry.164 Swedish law, through the Alien Act,
allows the government to refuse women entry into the country “if it can be assumed that the person
will commit a crime or that he or she will not support themselves ‘by honest means’ “.165
CRIMINAL PENALTIES AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
AGAINST SEX WORKERS
Anti-trafficking public awareness campaigns often rely on ideas and images of women as victims, yet
the solutions proposed often penalise both women who have been trafficked and sex workers. Sex
workers rights groups have argued that police violence and police brutality (sanctioned by criminalising
laws) is an urgent danger.166 This may worsen during international sporting events if law enforcement
feel pressured to prove they are ‘doing something’ or target specific ethnic groups (based on stereotypical
assumptions of trafficked women). For example, in South Africa, Western Cape Premier Helen Zille
appeared to rationalise crackdowns against sex workers as an anti-trafficking measure.167
[S]ex workers experienced ongoing harassment before and during the World Cup
period and, at times, could not access the few services that were available to them.
Some examples include:
• Police extortion of sex workers and extraction of bribes;
• Police arrests of sex workers without being formally charged; and
• Client intimidation and extortion by police (which affected sex workers ability to earn)168
– Eric Harper and Diane Massawe, Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce
(SWEAT) and Marlise Richter, South African National AIDS Council
40 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Sex workers have the same right to travel and migrate as anyone else, but when they
are wrongly labeled as trafficking victims, it leads to extreme human rights violations.
In many countries—including Canada—this means violent raids of brothels, and the
harassment, criminalization, detention, and deportation of sex workers, most of whom
are voluntary workers.169 – Joyce Arthur, FIRST, a sex worker ally group (Canada) and
GAATW member
This also applies to law enforcement’s use of “rescue raids”, or raiding premises where sex work is
taking place. This is ostensibly to identify and ‘rescue’ trafficked victims but has often led to arrests,
harassment, and deportation of migrant sex workers in many countries.170 171 172
While prostitution is legal in Germany, “police in Berlin raided 71 brothels in the city during the 2006
World Cup; they found no evidence of trafficking – but did deport ten women.”173
As a consequence of conflating trafficking and sex work the crackdown on illegal
prostitution and sex trafficking resulted in large-scale raids throughout Germany, with
nearly one hundred people, seventy four of them sex workers, arrested by the German
police. The interior minister of the Hesse province directly linked these raids with
“concerns expressed by human rights organizations and other groups that thousands
of women, mostly from Eastern Europe, could be smuggled into Germany and forced
to work as prostitutes during the World Cup”.174
In preparation for the 2012 London Olympics: Figures recently released to parliament
by the Home Office show SCD9 carried out 80 brothel raids between January to
August 2010 in the five boroughs….But the probation union, Napo, claimed the
crackdown would have unintended consequences…. “The strategy will drive the trade
underground and prohibition merely distorts the laws of supply and demand. As a
consequence, the trade will be more dangerous for women. Policy initiatives should
address real problems, such as housing, health and safety, and not be based on
flawed ideology which distorts the market and endangers the women.”175 –
‘London 2012 Olympics: Crackdown on brothels ‘puts sex workers at risk’, The
Observer (UK)
Photo by Jerome Kashetsky
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
41
“CLEANING UP THE STREETS” BY DISPLACING SEX
WORKERS AND OTHER MARGINALISED GROUPS
Intense media and law enforcement scrutiny to find trafficked victims has often occurred alongside
efforts to hurriedly move ‘undesirables’ away from public view. Although not specifically linked to antitrafficking
policy, displacement of sex workers and other marginalised groups was a strong concern
expressed by community advocates and other stakeholders in Vancouver prior to the 2010 Winter
Olympics and in Johannesburg prior to the 2010 World Cup.176 Community groups and allies were
concerned that efforts to “clean up the streets” would impact any groups that didn’t fit the city’s image
(e.g. sex workers, the homeless, poor people, jaywalkers). There were fears that displacing sex
workers and other marginalised groups would increase the risk of violence by forcing sex workers to
work in more isolated areas.
[T]he police were already arresting the ladies saying they are making South Africa
dirty so those people who come from the other countries, they wouldn’t like South
Africa because it would be dirty from the sex workers.177 – female sex worker, Cape
Town
“We especially urge you to resist the temptation to clear the streets and parks of the
Downtown Eastside of their longtime residents to address the imagined perceptions
of the international community in 2010.”178 – Letter addressed Vancouver’s Chief of
Police and Mayor, February 2009
In South Africa, sex workers reported great fears about being arrested and detained during the 2010
World Cup.179
[H]otels have begun clamping down on sex workers. On the streets this week, the
winter chill and increased police visibility meant fewer sex workers on the strip. Visits
during peak cruising hours, around 9pm, to the traditional red-light areas of Oxford
Street, Illovo and Sandton found fewer than 10 sex workers roaming around in skimpy
skirts. Those who had braved the low temperatures to lure clients dived into bushes
whenever the police patrolled…..”The securities have been making our lives hard.
They say they don’t want girls in their hotels.”180 – ‘No ‘boom boom’ for Joburg’s sex
workers’
Special Thanks to Laura Agustin
42 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Sex workers rights groups are already concerned about City “clean-up” efforts in London (for the 2012
Olympics) and Rio (for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympics).181
Scotland Yard has been accused of endangering sex workers after it emerged that
officers were targeting brothels in London’s Olympic boroughs as part of a coordinated
clean-up operation ahead of the 2012 games….Figures from the Open Door agency,
a health clinic based in East London, appear to partially confirm Napo’s claim. The
agency reported that there has already been a significant displacement of sex workers
throughout Newham, with a decline of 25% in referrals to health clinics since the
previous year. Napo said it appeared the women had not stopped working, but were
moving to other areas where they could be more at risk of rape, robbery and assault.182
– ‘London 2012 Olympics: Crackdown on brothels ‘puts sex workers at risk’, The
Observer (UK)
CONTROLLING WOMEN’S TRAVEL
Making migration and travel restrictions tougher for certain groups of women has been argued as a
strategy to stop trafficking and to ‘protect’ women from being trafficked.183 However, making migration
and travel more difficult can (1) increase the risk of trafficking and (2) restrict women’s rights. If women
are not allowed to travel on their own, traffickers or brokers become the only option to access work
opportunities abroad.184
Several organisations have indicated that efforts to prevent human trafficking have,
in some countries, resulted in the restriction of the movement of young women, which
is a violation of their rights. ….. La Strada is sceptical about prevention campaigns
that stigmatise or are only intended to prevent persons (in particular women) from
coming to South Africa.185 – La Strada International, a European anti-trafficking network
and GAATW member, speaking about the 2010 World Cup (South Africa)
Calling for increased border security measures around international sporting events allows governments
to justify restricting migrants’ rights in the name of fighting trafficking. For the 2006 World Cup, the
German government tried to demonstrate its commitment to anti-trafficking by “restricting visas from
East European countries such as Ukraine and Belarus for the duration of the tournament and stepping
up police raids on German brothels, looking for illegal immigrants and evidence of coercion”.186
[M]oral enforcement agents not only perform a gendered securitization of the border
but also a social and racial patrol of particular groups. Consequently the moral panic
surrounding the World Cup evidenced a peak in the subjection of some racial and
social groups to differential border, immigration and labour regimes. 187 – Dr. Sanja
Milivojevi , University of New South Wales, Australia
Based on these measures, women sports fans from poorer countries “will have to run away from their
‘rescuers’”188 or be seen as trafficking victims who are only ‘pretending’ to be visitors189:
Mr Frattini said that each and every application for a visa from women in the suspected
countries of origin for forced prostitution should be checked, as a lot of the times “the
women lie and say they will attend for instance cultural events” in the application.190 –
‘EU wants tighter visa rules to stymie World Cup sex trade’, EU Observer
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
43
Even if there isn’t evidence, is it
still possible that trafficking for
prostitution could increase during
large sporting events?
There are a number of reasons why an increase in trafficking for prostitution during international sporting
events is unlikely.
Trafficking results from poverty, powerlessness and limited economic options. The
supply of trafficking victims is driven far more by these factors than by temporary
fluctuations in demand for sex workers arising from sporting events. There is no
instantaneous, market-clearing process that responds to short-term shifts in demand.191
– Christina Arnold, Project Hope International
Statistically not feasible, i.e. “think it through”
The same inflated numbers of trafficked persons are often predicted for different large sporting events,
typically anywhere from 40,000 to 100,000. The implausibility of these figures are clearer when put
into perspective, such as by comparing these estimates to a country’s actual trafficking incidence
rates, the number of expected visitors for a particular event, and even the seating capacity of a sports
venue (see page 15).
Considering that the trafficked women will be joined by thousands of legal and voluntary
sex workers registered with the German government, there are simply not enough
men to seek the services of an additional 40,000 trafficking victims. Petra Burcikova,
the national coordinator for La Strada, a pan-European anti-trafficking organization,
sums up the implausibility of this figure. She says, “I think the guys who are coming
to watch the championship would not have time to watch any games because they
would have to be engaged in having sex with all of those prostitutes all of the time.”192
– Christina Arnold, Project Hope International
FIFA estimates that 450 000 international spectators will visit South Africa – that is 6
times fewer visitors than to the 2006 Germany World Cup. It is therefore highly unlikely
that 100,000 people would be trafficked into South Africa. Indeed, were that to be the
case there would be just less than one trafficked victim for every four spectators.193 –
Marlise Richter & Dr. Chandr Gould, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa
Short-term events are likely not profitable for
traffickers or sex workers
The idea of traffickers being magnetically drawn to large sporting events ignores the cost-benefit
analysis for a short-term event, especially given the fact that sex workers have often been displaced or
removed during street “clean-up” activities (see page 41). Short-term sports events are not only
insufficiently profitable for traffickers, sex workers and business owners they have more often than not,
reported a drop in business (or ‘demand’) during large sporting events.
While it is far too soon for any research results on the impact of the Games on sex
work in Vancouver, to date, all anecdotal reports we have received testify to a significant
44 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
drop in business during the Games. According to both street-level and inside workers
we have spoken to, customers stayed away because of concerns about street closures,
the overall security presence and the massive crowds that daily gathered in the city.194
-Esther Shannon, FIRST, a sex worker ally group and GAATW member
Trafficking in human beings is a business; traffickers want to make profits. It is
costly to bring a woman without valid residence papers to Germany. Women who
would be “forcibly carried off” to Germany just for the World Cup would not make
enough money for the perpetrators within the four weeks of the tournament. In general,
the women who are being supported by Ban Ying have had to work much longer for
the perpetrators than “just” four weeks.195 – Dr. Nivedita Prasad & Babette Rohner,
Ban Ying, an anti-trafficking organisation (Germany) and GAATW member
The high number of sex workers in Germany was also given as a reason that would decrease the
profitability for traffickers:
“It is no surprise for us that the numbers are not so high”, says Heike Rudat, a
spokeswoman for the German Union of Criminal Investigators. Germany already has
so many prostitutes, say experts, estimated at nearly 400,000, that there was simply
no need to increase the population, especially for such a short period.196 – Samuel
Loewenberg
Not just male fans
The hype around sporting events and trafficked women is largely based on assumptions about male
sports fans.197 In reality, sports fans and visitors often include large numbers of women, families, and
mixed groups.198 199 200 Events such as the Olympic Games are also typically marketed as a familyfriendly
event to showcase the best the host city has to offer. This contradicts the assumptions made
about the fan base of large sporting events as being predominantly male and demanding sex.
“These are family events, and the idea that thousands of testosterone-fuelled blokes
turn up looking for sex just doesn’t reflect reality.”201 – Catherine Stephens, International
Union of Sex Workers (IUSW)
Sexual services may not be affordable for most sports
visitors
Considering the costs involved in attending an international sporting event, paying for sexual services
may not be affordable for many sports visitors. This may be the case especially for sports events in
very expensive cities (such as London, Vancouver, Berlin) or relatively long-distance locations (such
as South Africa).
Sporting events suck for the sex trade. The younger fans have already spent thousands
on jacked-up hotel rates, airfare and scalped tickets, she says [Maggie McNeill, ‘The
Honest Courtesan’]. They only have enough left to nurse Bud Lights and J ger bombs.
The executive caste may have money to burn, but most bring their families along.
“What do they say to their wives?” McNeill asks. “‘Hey honey, I’m going to see a
hooker now?’”202 – ‘The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers won’t be showing
up in Dallas.’
In general, interest in football and partying seemed to have prevailed. Further, it was
pointed out that there were many low-budget tourists among the fans, who had just
enough money for tickets and transport.203 – International Organisation for Migration
(IOM)
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
45
91 Gould, C. Moral panic, human trafficking and the 2010 Soccer World Cup. Agenda, 85, 31-44. Available online at:
http://www.agenda.org.za/launch-of-agenda-no-85-2010-fifa-world-cup-gender-politics-and-sport/
92 Ban Ying. (2006). Where are the 40,000? Statement on trafficking during the World Cup. Available online at: http://
http://www.ban-ying.de/pageeng/start.htm
93 Kotz, P. (2011, January 27). The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers won’t be showing up in Dallas. Dallas
Observer. Available online at: http://www.dallasobserver.com/2011-01-27/news/the-super-bowl-prostitute-myth-100-
000-hookers-won-t-be-showing-up-in-dallas/
94 E.g. see GAATW. (2010). Beyond Borders: Exploring Links Between Trafficking and Migration. GAATW Working Papers
Series 2010. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/WP_on_Migration.pdf
95 (2003, July 23). Anger over Greek Olympic brothels. BBC News. Available online at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/
3091209.stm
96 E.g. See Bovenkerk, F. & van San, M. (2011). Loverboys in the Amsterdam Red Light District: A realist approach to the
study of a moral panic. Crime Media Culture, 7(2), 185-199. Doezema, J. (2000). Loose women or lost women? The reemergence
of the myth of ‘white slavery’ in contemporary discourses of ‘trafficking in women’. Gender Issues, 18 (1), 23-
50. Available online at: http://www.walnet.org/csis/papers/doezema-loose.html
97 O’Neill, B. (2010, March 18). Stop this illicit trade in bullshit stories. spiked. Available online at: http://www.spikedonline.
com/index.php/site/printable/8324/
98 GAATW. (2010). Feeling good about feeling bad…A global review of evaluation in anti-trafficking initiatives. Bangkok,
GAATW. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/GAATW_Global_Review.FeelingGood.AboutFeelingBad.pdf
99 GAATW. (2010). Beyond Borders: Exploring Links Between Trafficking and Gender. GAATW Working Papers Series
2010. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/WP_on_Gender.pdf
100 Kotz, P. (2011, January 27). The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers won’t be showing up in Dallas. Dallas
Observer. Available online at: http://www.dallasobserver.com/2011-01-27/news/the-super-bowl-prostitute-myth-100-
000-hookers-won-t-be-showing-up-in-dallas/
101 Robertson, D. (2010). SA report: World Cup human trafficking warnings exaggerated. Voice of America. Available online
at: http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/southern/World-Cup-Human-Trafficking-Warnings-Exaggerated-
96886959.html
102 Sapa. (2009, October 23). Human trafficking: not enough awareness. IOL News. Available online at: http://www.iol.co.za/
news/south-africa/human-trafficking-not-enough-awareness-1.462525
103 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
104 Wyatt, B. (2010, July 10). Soccer fans shun hookers for art’s sake. CNN. Available online at: http://edition.cnn.com/
2010/SPORT/football/07/09/prostitute.gallery/index.html
105 Pillay, V. & Salo. E. (eds.). (2010). 2010 FIFA World Cup: Gender, politics and sport. Agenda, 85. Available online at: http:/
/www.agenda.org.za/launch-of-agenda-no-85-2010-fifa-world-cup-gender-politics-and-sport/
106 Walter, D. (ed.). (2009). Gender, media and sport. Gender & Media Diversity Journal, 7. Available online at: http://
http://www.genderlinks.org.za/article/gender-economic-empowerment-and-2010-2010-01-05
107 Gaura, D. (2009). Gender, economic empowerment and 2010. Gender & Media Diversity Journal, 7, 48-53. Available
online at: http://www.genderlinks.org.za/article/gender-economic-empowerment-and-2010-2010-01-05
108 Rubin, M. (2009). The offside rule: Women’s bodies in masculinised spaces. In U. Pillay, R. Tomlinson, & O. Bass (Eds.),
Development and dreams: The urban legacy of the 2010 football World Cup (266-280). Cape Town: HSRC Press.
Available online at: http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/product.php?productid=2259&freedownload=1
109 E.g. (2010, June 15). Commonwealth Games could see prostitution and trafficking increase. STV (Scotland). Available
online at: http://news.stv.tv/scotland/west-central/182789-commonwealth-games-could-see-prostitution-and-traffickingincrease/
Hodges, S. (2011, January 19). Women taking up fight against sex trafficking ahead of Super Bowl. The Dallas Morning
News. Available online at: http://www.dallasnews.com/sports/super-bowl/local/20110119-women-taking-up-fight-againstsex-
trafficking-ahead-of-super-bowl.ece
110 Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW). (2006). Primer on the Male Demand for Prostitution. US: CATW.
Available online at: http://action.web.ca/home/catw/attach/PRIMER.pdf
111 The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human trafficking at the 2010 Olympics. Calgary: The
Future Group.
112 Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW). (2006). Primer on the Male Demand for Prostitution. US: CATW.
Available online at: http://action.web.ca/home/catw/attach/PRIMER.pdf
113 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
114 Miles, A. (2002-2003). Prostitution, trafficking and the global sex industry: An interview with Janice Raymond. Canadian
Woman Studies, 22 (3-4), 26-37.
115 Doezema, J. (2002). “Who gets to choose? Coercion, consent and the UN Trafficking Protocol?” Gender and Development,
10(1), 20-27.
116 As cited in Milivojevi , S. & Pickering, S. (2008). Football and sex: the 2006 FIFA World Cup and sex trafficking. TEMIDA,
21-47. Available online at: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1450-6637/2008/1450-66370802021M.pdf
117 New Zealand Government. (2008). Report of the Prostitution Law Review Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution
Reform Act 2003. Wellington: Ministry of Justice. Available online at: http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/commercial-propertyand-
regulatory/prostitution/prostitution-law-review-committee/publications/plrc-report/documents/report.pdf
118 O’Connor, M. (2010, February 12). South Africa addresses human trafficking in advance of World Cup soccer. Spero
News.. Available online at: http://www.speroforum.com/a/27307/South-Africa-addresses-human-trafficking-in-advanceof-
World-Cup-soccer
119 Barr, J. & Noren, N. (2011, January 7). Concerns raised about illegal sex trade. ESPN: Outside the Lines. Available
46 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
online at: http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/otl/news/story?id=5251940
120 The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human trafficking at the 2010 Olympics. Calgary: The
Future Group.
121 Boughton, N. (2010). Buying sex is not a sport: Human trafficking is the seamy side of the Olympics. Mandate.
122 McRoskey, S. (2010). Security and the Olympic Games: Making Rio an Example. Yale Journal of International Affairs,
Spring/Summer 2010, 91-105. Available online at: http://yalejournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/105209mcroskey.pdf
123 Full text online at: http://lordsheikh.com/?p=1434 and http://www.theyworkforyou.com/lords/?id=2010-10-14a.594.9
124 GAATW. (2010). Beyond Borders: Exploring Links Between Trafficking and Migration. GAATW Working Papers Series
2010. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/WP_on_Migration.pdf
125 GAATW and La Strada International. (2009 Oct 18). NGO Priority for EU Anti-Trafficking Day 2009: Focus on Human
Rights. NGO paper for the EU Ministerial Conference: Towards Global EU Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings.
126 Weekes, A. (2006). South African anti-trafficking legislation: A critique of control over women’s freedom of movement
and sexuality. Agenda, 70, 29-37. Available online at: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/72478610/focus-fiona
127 E.g. The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human trafficking at the 2010 Olympics. Calgary: The
Future Group.
128 The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human trafficking at the 2010 Olympics. Calgary: The
Future Group.
129 E.g. (2009, October 23). Human trafficking: not enough awareness. IOL News. Available online at: http://www.iol.co.za/
news/south-africa/human-trafficking-not-enough-awareness-1.462525
(2007, November 2). Human trafficking a Games pitfall, researcher warns. The Vancouver Sun. Available online at: http:/
/www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/business/story.html?id=c8b93773-4373-465c-92a3-4c5af740bec7
130 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Hellenic Republic, Progress Report on the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking
in Persons, 2004, p. 9 as cited in Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup
and the consequences of an unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/
Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
131 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
132 US State Department (2005) as cited in Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work
Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group
(SIWSAG). Available online at: http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
133 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
134 (2003, July 23). Anger over Greek Olympic brothels. BBC News. Available online at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/
3091209.stm
135 Hayes, V. (2010). Human trafficking for sexual exploitation at world sporting events. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 85 (3),
1105-1146.
136 E.g. FIRST. (2009, September 24). Rights Not Rescue: An Open Letter to the Salvation Army. Available online at: http:/
/www.firstadvocates.org/rights-not-rescue-open-letter-salvation-army
(2009, September 25). Sex trade workers decry Salvation Army posters. Vancouver Sun. Available online at: http://
http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/westcoastnews/story.html?id=7bbda753-5f9b-4d9e-959e-8daea40fd1de
Little, N. (2008, December 22). Salvation Army plays into the fear and paranoia around sex work. Xtra. Available online at:
http://www.xtra.ca/public/National/Salvation_Army_plays_into_the_fear_and_paranoia_around_sex_work-6057.aspx
137 Gould, C. Moral panic, human trafficking and the 2010 Soccer World Cup. Agenda, 85, 31-44. Available online at: http:/
/www.agenda.org.za/launch-of-agenda-no-85-2010-fifa-world-cup-gender-politics-and-sport/
138 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
139 E.g. FIM – Frauenrecht ist Menschenrecht e.V. (2006). Stop Forced Prostitution. Available online at: http://www.stopptzwangsprostitution.
de/en/
140 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
141 Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup and the consequences of an
unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
142 Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/Collateral%20Damage_Final/singlefile_CollateralDamagefinal.pdf
143 Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission. (2006). Opinion of the Expert Group on
Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission In Connection with the World Football Cup 2006 in Germany
and the Related Assumption of Increased Trafficking Activities Around this Event. Available online at: http://
lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/350%20opinion_expert_group_WorldCup.pdf
144 Milivojevi , S. (2008). Women’s bodies, moral panic and the world game: Sex trafficking, the 2006 Football World Cup
and beyond. Proceedings of the 2nd Australian & New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, 19-20 June 2008.
Sydney: Crime & Justice Research Network and the Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Network. Available
online at: http://www.cjrn.unsw.edu.au/critcrimproceedings2008.pdf
145 Richter, M. & Gould, C. (2010, March 23). The Need for Evidence to Assess Concerns About Human Trafficking During
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146 (2010, June 21). Report: Trafficking focus takes light off other issues. Mail & Guardian. Available online at: http://
mg.co.za/article/2010-06-21-reporttrafficking-focus-takes-light-off-other-issues
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
47
147 Richter, M. & Monson, T. (2010). Human trafficking & migration. Migration Issue Brief 4. Available online at: http://
http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/FMSP_Migration_Issue_Brief_4_Trafficking_June_2010_doc.pdf
148 Nyangairi, B. (2009, November 26-27). The difference between sex work and trafficking – and why this difference
matters. Presentation at Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_
2009.pdf
149 Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup and the consequences of an
unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
150 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
151 Richter, M. & Monson, T. (2010). Human trafficking & migration. Migration Issue Brief 4. Available online at: http://
http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/FMSP_Migration_Issue_Brief_4_Trafficking_June_2010_doc.pdf
152 Richter, M. & Monson, T. (2010). Human trafficking & migration. Migration Issue Brief 4. Available online at: http://
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153 Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”: Research findings regarding
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154 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
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155 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
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156 Kardas-Nelson. M. (2010, February 25). Human trafficking and the Games. Rabble.ca. Available online at: http://
rabble.ca/news/2010/02/human-trafficking-and-games
157 Shannon, E. (2010). Sex workers’ rights and Olympic anti-trafficking rhetoric. Alliance News, 33, 27-31. Available online
at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/Alliance%20News/Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
158 Andrijasevic, R. (2007). Beautiful dead bodies: Gender, migration and representation in anti-trafficking campaigns.
Feminist Review, 86, 24-44. Available online at: http://www.atc.org.yu/data/File/Trgovina%20ljudima/
beautiful%20dead%20bodies.pdf
159 E.g. Hughes, D. (2005). The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking. Available online at: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/
hughes/demand_for_victims.pdf
160 Lepp, A. (2010). Gender, racialisation and mobility: Human trafficking and the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games.
Alliance News, 33, 47-51. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/Alliance%20News/
Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
161 Ham, J. & Napier-Moore, R. (2010, October). Shifting public anti-trafficking discourses through arts and the media. Paper
presented at Forcing Issues: Re-thinking and Re-scaling Human Trafficking in the Asia-Pacific Region, National University
of Singapore, Singapore.
162 Milivojevi , S. (2008). Women’s bodies, moral panic and the world game: Sex trafficking, the 2006 Football World Cup
and beyond. Proceedings of the 2nd Australian & New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, 19-20 June 2008.
Sydney: Crime & Justice Research Network and the Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Network. Available
online at: http://www.cjrn.unsw.edu.au/critcrimproceedings2008.pdf
163 Milivojevi , S. & Pickering, S. (2008). Football and sex: the 2006 FIFA World Cup and sex trafficking. TEMIDA, 21-47.
Available online at: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1450-6637/2008/1450-66370802021M.pdf
164 Nederstigt, F., Campello, R., & Almeida, L. (2007). Brazil. In GAATW (Ed.), Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-
Trafficking Measures on Human Rights Around the World. Bangkok: GAATW. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/
Collateral%20Damage_Final/CollateralDamage_BRAZIL.pdf
165 Dodillet, S. & stergren, P. (2011, March 3-4). The Swedish Sex Purchase Act: Claimed Success and Documented
Effects. Conference paper presented at Decriminalizing Prostitution and Beyond: Practical Experiences and Challenges,
The Hague, Netherlands. Available online at: http://www.petraostergren.com/upl/files/54259.pdf
166 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
167 Sapa. (2010, March 4). World Cup trafficking exaggerated. JacarandaFM. Available online at: http://
http://www.jacarandafm.com/kagiso/content/en/jacaranda/jacaranda-news?oid=583277&sn=Detail&pid=6102&—World-Cuptrafficking-
exaggerated—
168 Harper, E., Massawe, D. & Richter, M. (2010). Report on the 2010 Soccer World Cup and Sex Work: Documenting
Successes and Failures. FMSP Research Report. Johannesburg: Forced Migration Studies Programme (University of the
Witwatersrand). Available online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/
Report_on_the_2010_Soccer_World_Cup_and_Sex_Work_-_Documenting_Successes_and_Failures.pdf
169 Arthur, J. (2009, June 15). Facts and fictions about sex trafficking and Vancouver’s 2010 Olympics. Georgia Straight.
Available at: http://www.straight.com/article-232537/joyce-arthur-facts-and-fictions-about-sex-trafficking-andvancouvers-
2010-olympics
170 Ditmore, M. (2009). The Use of Raids to Fight Trafficking in Persons.New York, New York: Sex Workers Project.
Retrieved April 23, 2010 from
http://www.sexworkersproject.org/downloads/swp-2009-raids-and-trafficking-report.pdf
171 Hames, C. (2009, October 21). Trafficking Isn’t Just About Prostitution. The Guardian. Retrieved April 23, 2010 from http:/
/www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/oct/21/trafficking-prostitution-migrants-labour
172 Davies, N. (2009, October 20). Inquiry Fails to Find Single Trafficker who Forced Anybody into Prostitution. The
Guardian. Retrieved April 23, 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/oct/20/government-trafficking-enquiry-fails
173 Ban Ying. (2006, July 11). Where are the 40,000? Statement on Trafficking during the World Cup. Available online at:
http://www.ban-ying.de/pageeng/start.htm
174 Associated Press (2006, June 1), cited in Milivojeviæ, S. (2008). Women’s bodies, moral panic and the world game:
48 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Sex trafficking, the 2006 Football World Cup and beyond. Proceedings of the 2nd Australian & New Zealand Critical
Criminology Conference, 19-20 June 2008. Sydney: Crime & Justice Research Network and the Australian and New
Zealand Critical Criminology Network. Available online at: http://www.cjrn.unsw.edu.au/critcrimproceedings2008.pdf
175 Doward, J. (2011, April 10). London 2012 Olympics: Crackdown on brothels ‘puts sex workers at risk’. The Observer.
Available online at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/10/brothel-crackdown-london-olympics-risk
176 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations.
Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/
sextraffic2010games.pdf
177 Richter, M. & Massawe, D. (2010). Did South Africa’s soccer bonanza bring relief to sex workers in South Africa? The
2010 FIFA World Cup and the impact on sex work. Agenda, 85. Available online at: http://www.agenda.org.za/launch-ofagenda-
no-85-2010-fifa-world-cup-gender-politics-and-sport/
178 Howell, M. (2009, February 16). Police crackdown will increase HIV risk, say DTES groups. Vancouver Courier.
Available online at: http://www2.canada.com/vancouvercourier/news/story.html?id=58a66791b3c544b6ae
261a567d523902
179 Sisonke. (2009, November 26-27). Sex workers’ reflections on the 2010 Soccer World Cup. Presentation at Consultation
on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa. Available online at: http://
http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_2009.pdf
180 Thakali, T. & Bailey, C. (2010, June 19). No ‘boom boom’ for Joburg’s sex workers. IOL News. Available online at:
http://www.iol.co.za/sport/no-boom-boom-for-joburg-s-sex-workers-1.490629
181 Phillips, T. (2010, August 8). Rio prostitutes fret over facelift for World Cup and Olympics. The Guardian. Available online
at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/aug/08/rio-prostitutes-fear-facelift-olympics
182 Doward, J. (2011, April 10). London 2012 Olympics: Crackdown on brothels ‘puts sex workers at risk’. The Observer.
Available online at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/10/brothel-crackdown-london-olympics-risk
183 The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human trafficking at the 2010 Olympics. Calgary: The
Future Group.
184 GAATW. (2010). Beyond Borders: Exploring Links Between Trafficking and Migration. GAATW Working Papers Series
2010. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/WP_on_Migration.pdf
185 La Strada International. (2010). Questions and answers on La Strada International’s Opinion on the FIFA World Cup
2010 and Human Trafficking. Available online at: http://lastradainternational.org/ lsidocs/
Q%20&%20A%20human%20trafficking%20and%20FIFA%20WORLD%20CUP%202010.pdf
186 Curry, J. (2006) cited in Arnold, C. (2006, June 13). A red card for hype on World Cup trafficking story. Project Hope
International. Available online at: http://preventhumantrafficking.org/storage/article-downloads/RedCardForHype.pdf
187 Milivojevi , S. (2008). Women’s bodies, moral panic and the world game: Sex trafficking, the 2006 Football World Cup
and beyond. Proceedings of the 2nd Australian & New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, 19-20 June 2008.
Sydney: Crime & Justice Research Network and the Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Network. Available
online at: http://www.cjrn.unsw.edu.au/critcrimproceedings2008.pdf
188 Milivojevi , S. (2008). Women’s bodies, moral panic and the world game: Sex trafficking, the 2006 Football World Cup
and beyond. Proceedings of the 2nd Australian & New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, 19-20 June 2008.
Sydney: Crime & Justice Research Network and the Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Network. Available
online at: http://www.cjrn.unsw.edu.au/critcrimproceedings2008.pdf
189 The Future Group. (2007). Faster, higher, stronger: Preventing human trafficking at the 2010 Olympics. Calgary: The
Future Group.
190 K chler, T. (2006, March 9). EU wants tighter visa rules to stymie World Cup sex trade. EU Observer. Available online
at: http://euobserver.com/24/21090
191 Arnold, C. (2006, June 13). A red card for hype on World Cup trafficking story. Project Hope International. Available
online at: http://preventhumantrafficking.org/storage/article-downloads/RedCardForHype.pdf
192 Arnold, C. (2006, June 13). A red card for hype on World Cup trafficking story. Project Hope International. Available
online at: http://preventhumantrafficking.org/storage/article-downloads/RedCardForHype.pdf
193 Richter, M. & Gould, C. (2010, March 23). The Need for Evidence to Assess Concerns About Human Trafficking During
the 2010 World Cup. Available online at: http://www.iss.co.za/iss_today.php?ID=917
194 Shannon, E. (2010). Sex workers’ rights and Olympic anti-trafficking rhetoric. Alliance News, 33, 27-31. Available online
at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/Alliance%20News/Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
195 Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup and the consequences of an
unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
196 Loewenberg, S. (2006). Fears of World Cup sex trafficking boom unfounded. The Lancet, 368 (8), 105-106.
197 Sapa. (2009, October 23). Human trafficking: Not enough awareness. IOL News. Available online at: http://www.iol.co.za/
news/south-africa/human-trafficking-not-enough-awareness-1.462525
198 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
199 Wyatt, B. (2010, July 10). Soccer fans shun hookers for art’s sake. CNN. Available online at: http://edition.cnn.com/
2010/SPORT/football/07/09/prostitute.gallery/index.html
200 Rubin, M. (2009). The offside rule: Women’s bodies in masculinised spaces. In U. Pillay, R. Tomlinson, & O. Bass (Eds.),
Development and dreams: The urban legacy of the 2010 football World Cup (266-280). Cape Town: HSRC Press.
Available online at: http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/product.php?productid=2259&freedownload=1
201 Ozimek, J.F. (2010, October 7). Have hordes of sex workers snubbed the Commonwealth games? The Register.
Available online at: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2010/10/07/olympic_workers/
202 Kotz, P. (2011, January 27). The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers won’t be showing up in Dallas. Dallas
Observer. Available online at: http://www.dallasobserver.com/2011-01-27/news/the-super-bowl-prostitute-myth-100-
000-hookers-won-t-be-showing-up-in-dallas/
203 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
DE-CONSTRUCTING A RUMOUR
49
ACTING
EFFECTIVELY
52 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Are there any connections
between other forms of trafficking
and large sporting events?
There are other forms of trafficking that may be related to international sporting events. However,
stakeholders should weigh the evidence and assess ramifications of media portrayals. Examinations
into other forms of trafficking around large sporting events should focus on the rights of migrants and
trafficked persons, rather than used to fuel anti-immigration sentiments.
For instance, the number of migrant workers on Olympics construction projects in London has already
been noted in the UK media. Unfortunately, the media has so far been less interested in migrant
workers’ working conditions than on the idea of migrant workers fuelling ‘demand’ for commercial
sex.204
Elsewhere, other organisations have examined labour exploitation and human rights abuses of migrant
workers on sports-related construction projects. A sudden need for specific sports venues and housing
for athletes within a limited time period may lead to extended working hours and increased risk for
workers.
The working conditions of the migrant workers that have contributed to the building of
the stadiums are known to be very poor. In fact, the only figures we have on the 2004
Olympics in Greece are the 13 Greek and at least 25 (undocumented) migrant workers
that have died due to unsafe working conditions.205 – La Strada International, a European
anti-trafficking network and GAATW member
[I]n the years prior to the 2010 Olympic Games with British Columbia experiencing
severe labour shortages, the reliance on temporary migrant workers from Latin America
and the Philippines to construct the massive transportation and sports infrastructure
in Vancouver and surrounding areas was less than a footnote to this unfolding story.
Nor was there any extensive investigation of or concern about the working conditions
under which Third World and predominantly Chinese workers produced the dizzying
array of consumer goods available at Olympic venues and on-line.206 – Dr. Annalee
Lepp, GAATW Canada
In 2008, the Chinese government admitted that six workers had been killed in workplace accidents at
Olympic venues.207 In Hidden Faces of the Gulf Miracle208, the International Trade Union Confederation
(ITUC) examined human rights violations against migrant construction workers in Qatar and the United
Arab Emirates. Human rights violations included contract substitutions, non-payment, exploitative
working conditions, physical abuse, excessive recruitment fees, and restrictions on worker organising
efforts.
There is widespread concern that migrants will fall victim to agencies seeking to
make quick money from the [2022] World Cup recruitment boom or face exploitation
from companies eager to cut costs and deadlines in the rush to complete projects in
time for the tournament. – International Trade Union Confederation
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
53
Migrant workers win case over discriminatory practices
on Olympics construction project
Under Canada’s Temporary Foreign Workers visa program, the construction companies leading Olympicrelated
construction projects hired 38 workers from Latin American countries to build an underground
tunnel as part of the metro line linking Vancouver with the Vancouver International Airport (the Canada
Line project). Compared to Canadian and European construction workers on the same project, the
Latin American construction workers were discriminated against in terms of “salaries, accommodations,
meals, and expenses”.209
The Construction and Specialised Workers Union launched a complaint on their behalf in 2006:
“Temporary foreign workers should not have to rely on extensive litigation or suffer
lengthy delays to win their basic human rights in Canada….I hope this historic decision
will make it much easier for other workers to demand fair treatment and encourage
governments to adequately protect those rights.”210
The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal ordered the companies to pay each worker the difference
between the amount paid to them and the amount paid to others plus $10,000 (CDN) each for “injury
to dignity, feelings and self-respect”. The award for all workers totaled more than $2.4 million (CDN).
Calling for ethical working conditions in the sports
manufacturing sector
Research has highlighted the labour rights violations in the production of soccer balls and sportswear
factories in Asia.211 212 Labour rights issues include the use of child labour, precarious labour, low
wages, occupational health and safety violations, and limited rights to organise and collectively bargain.
The international PlayFair campaign was launched prior to the 2004 Athens Olympics and aimed “to
pressure sportswear and athletic footwear companies, the International Olympics Committee … as
well as national governments, into taking identifiable and concrete measures to eliminate the exploitation
and abuse of the mostly women workers in the global sporting goods industry.”213 This campaign
continued prior to and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics214. A 2012 campaign (www.playfair2012.org.uk)
has been launched to address workers’ rights and ethical consumption issues around the 2012 London
Olympics. In Brazil, Building Workers’ International has launched a campaign around the 2014 World
Cup and PlayFair has launched a campaign for the 2016 Olympics.215
Recruitment of young athletes
There have been a number of media articles examining the recruitment and exploitation of young
African athletes in the sports sector generally (i.e. not limited to large sporting events).216 Issues
include the practices of unlicensed football ‘academies’, false contract offers, large rates paid to
agents and brokers to facilitate travel for young athletes, and the abandonment of young athletes in
destination countries.
There have been some troubling reports in print and electronic media of young and
adult Kenyan athletes being recruited by foreign countries, mostly the Gulf States of
Qatar and Bahrain, only to find themselves in conditions they had not consented to.
As Kenya does not recognise dual citizenship, both young and adult athletes who
revoke their nationality so as to move to foreign countries face the danger of being
rendered stateless, as was the case with Gregory Konchellah (Yusuf Saad Kamel)
who fell out with his adopted country – Bahrain – over claims of unpaid dues. Bahrain
refused to grant his request to revert to his Kenyan citizenship and also denied him
the right to use his Bahraini passport. Besides allegations of unpaid salaries, there
have been complaints that young migrant athletes who are not good enough to make
the cut are required to join their adopted countries’ military. Such practices have been
disturbing enough for Athletics Kenya, the country’s official athletes governing body,
to accuse Bahrain and Qatar of ‘modern day slavery’.217 – Nkirote Laiboni
54 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
What’s the best way to deal with
the issue of trafficking around
international sporting events?
We must involve affected stakeholders and apply an evidence-based approach to
prevent trafficking, rather than misrepresent the issues with scare-mongering, sexist
rhetoric. Most importantly, our focus must be on ensuring the safety and full human
rights of sex workers before, during, and after the 2010 Games.218 – Joyce Arthur,
FIRST, a sex worker ally group (Canada) and GAATW member
While there is no evidence linking sporting events with trafficking for prostitution, we recognise that
some stakeholders might feel compelled or face political pressure to ‘do something’ about trafficking.
Some of the rights-based groups in our network have tried to channel the increased attention in a more
productive direction, such as by raising awareness of broader trafficking issues or highlighting sex
workers’ rights.219 Below are some recommended guidelines for stakeholders, based on
recommendations from sex workers rights groups, GAATW members and allies. Some of the
recommendations below also focus on preventing any ‘collateral damage’ or negative impacts that can
occur from misguided or misinformed anti-trafficking efforts.
The recommendations below mainly apply to anti-trafficking efforts specifically related to international
sporting events. These recommendations don’t cover other general anti-trafficking issues that have
already been detailed elsewhere, such as training for the proper identification of trafficked persons,
ensuring access to justice for trafficked persons, and the need for strong victim protection and support
services. For the handling of actual trafficking cases, we encourage stakeholders to refer to the
Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking220 and its
Commentary221 by the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and other resources
developed by the GAATW International Secretariat and our member organisations (available at
http://www.gaatw.org).222
Any anti-trafficking efforts must be proportionate, sustainable, evidence-based, cognizant of other
sectors in which trafficking occurs, and done in consultation with groups affected by trafficking and/or
anti-trafficking measures, such as sex workers.
Organizations should further avoid using valuable resources for counter-trafficking
measures solely within the context of major events.223 – Jana Hennig, Sarah Craggs,
Frank Laczko and Fred Larsson
In preparation for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympics, the Brazilian Observatory of Human
Trafficking (an anti-trafficking coalition with several GAATW members) has already started to reach
out to stakeholders with their recommendations:224
• Do not suppress the practice of prostitution in the name of fighting trafficking of persons.
• Prevention efforts are recommended in fans’ or visitors’ countries of origin, and the cities
of the World Cup against the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.
• Sex workers, women and men, need support services such as information, condom
distribution, ways to report violence, without fear of being arrested or punished.
• Campaigns and interventions that weaken the position of sex workers should be avoided,
and do not implement ‘crackdowns’ to evict sex workers from the streets, squares, clubs,
etc. More visibility means more safety.
• Develop policy on this issue in consultation with prostitutes’ and sex workers’ organisations.
• The World Cup events are opportunities for traffickers to entice local players, mostly
young, to take a chance at opportunities abroad. Information campaigns with football
academies are essential.
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
55
CONSULT AND COLLABORATE WITH GROUPS AFFECTED BY
TRAFFICKING AND/OR ANTI-TRAFFICKING MEASURES
Groups directly affected by trafficking and/or anti-trafficking measures must be consulted to ensure
that anti-trafficking measures are effective, reflect community priorities, and don’t result in further
harm.225
“It is inappropriate to think that sex workers want to be saved by the Salvation Army…If
they really want to know what sex workers need, they should have asked them.”
Katrina Pacey, PIVOT Legal, a legal aid organisation (Canada), in response to an
anti-trafficking campaign by the Salvation Army226
Given that the issues at play – homelessness, poverty, sex work, migration and
trafficking – can encourage notions about what is ‘best’ for people, local stakeholders
expressed concern that identified solutions may not respect their realities. Such
solutions would have negative effects on the health and safety of sex industry workers
and trafficking victims and also reduce their willingness to access services.227 –
Raven Bowen and Esther Shannon, Frontline Consulting
Directly affected groups such as sex workers have valuable knowledge and information that can assist
anti-trafficking efforts. Increased attention on trafficking presents an opportunity to develop alternatives
that work productively with sex workers rather than punishing them (such as the ‘raid and rescue’
method currently used). If there is increased funding allocated to anti-trafficking initiatives around large
international events, sex workers rights groups and other peer-led or self-organised groups should be
prioritised for support.
Vancouver should fund organizations that are made up of sex workers and not sex
worker “helpers.” – sex worker228
A sex worker hotline pilot project was launched during the World Cup. Cape Town sex
workers were trained as helpline counsellors and provide telephonic assistance to
sex workers. The helpline calls over this period confirmed an increase in intimidation
from the police and in particular the “Vice Squad” in Cape Town.229 – Eric Harper and
Diane Massawe, Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) and Marlise
Richter, South African National AIDS Council
The South African National AIDS Council’s “Intersectoral
Working Group on Sex Work” is an example of a collaborative
effort between sex workers, researchers, healthcare providers,
lawyers and advocates. The Working Group was formed in
2009 to address human rights and public health issues around
the 2010 World Cup; and to see if World Cup-related activities
could catalyse productive debate about the decriminalisation
of sex work. The Working Group was supported by an egroup
of researchers, healthcare providers, lawyers, sex
workers and advocates.
In November 2009, the South African National AIDS Council
(SANAC) and the Sex Worker Education and Advocacy
Taskforce (SWEAT) organised a 2-day consultation to discuss
strategies and coordinate action amongst allies.230
The consultation called for:
• Right to sex worker safety and protection
• Right to sexual health for everyone
56 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
• Accessibility to sexual health services for everyone
• Lawful, responsible and respectful police behaviour towards sex workers
• Freedom of movement in one’s living environment
• Dignity for sex workers
After the World Cup, members of SWEAT and SANAC published their Report on the 2010 Soccer
World Cup and Sex Work: Documenting Successes and Failures231. This report assessed the actions
that had been successful in their work, such as: the delivery of human rights training and public health
messaging, research into sex work around sporting events, the creation of a sex worker hotline staffed
by sex workers, delivery of media training for sex workers and advocates, and a workshop on sex
worker arrest. Authors also reflected on the failed actions, noting that authorities failed to implement a
moratorium on sex work related arrests (as recommended by the Working Group), SANAC’s failure to
adopt the recommendations from the November consultation, and SANAC’s resistance to adopt the
recommendation to decriminalise sex work.
RAISE AWARENESS ABOUT RIGHTS AND OPTIONS, NOT FEAR
OR PITY
Any media, fundraising, and public awareness activities bear a responsibility towards accuracy and
ethical representation of trafficked persons, sex workers, migrants and other groups affected by antitrafficking
efforts.
Raise informed awareness, not fear and pity
Some anti-trafficking awareness raising campaigns have been limited to promoting a certain ideology
(e.g. demonising clients’ of sex workers), or promoting emotions such as fear (e.g. dangers of migrating)
or paternalism (e.g. helping those ‘who cannot help themselves’). Considering the amount of resources
channelled into awareness raising campaigns, it’s surprising how few provide concrete information on
the practical options that would be helpful to trafficking victims, exploited migrants, or to those that
might assist them.
Awareness raising campaigns that clearly state the rights and resources available to trafficked persons
would allow victims to assess whether they should seek assistance and whether they can trust
authorities.
LSI recommends that such campaigns do not only warn against human trafficking
but also provide adequate information to migrants who want to work in the country
during the World Cup with accurate information about working in South Africa in the
different industries and the rights that they do or do not have.232 – La Strada International,
a European anti-trafficking network and GAATW member
Raise awareness about the rights, not just the
vulnerabilities, of sex workers and other marginalised
groups
Sex workers and other groups likely to be targeted by misguided or punitive anti-trafficking efforts (e.g.
migrants, racial/ethnic minority women) should be informed about their rights and their options should
they encounter intimidation, harassment or abuse from law enforcement, the media or others.
For community groups in Vancouver and Johannesburg, this included providing media training for sex
workers, to meet the increased media demand before the 2010 Olympics and 2010 World Cup,
respectively.233
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
57
“We just want our members to feel safe in the neighbourhood in which they live and
safe to work in the neighbourhood in which they live…We find sometimes that media
attention to the area can be a little less than compassionate, and we don’t want them
to feel like animals in a zoo during that time… We just want [the sex trade workers]
to be aware of what their rights are around media, including the fact that it is legal for
[media] to take a picture of them on a public street… And if they do consent to an
interview, they can get the questions ahead of time. Things like that.”234 – Kerry
Porth, Providing Alternatives Counselling and Education (PACE), Canada
Stigma around sex work contributes to sex workers’ vulnerability and entrenches the belief that violence
against sex workers will not be taken seriously. Raising awareness of sex workers’ rights has the
potential to address violence by reinforcing messages that violent perpetrators will not be able to get
away with harming sex workers.235
A South African coalition of sex workers rights groups, researchers, and public health allies agreed to
base any 2010 World Cup-related materials around these messages236 237:
• Sex workers have the right to work for the period of the World Cup.
• Sex workers have the right to personal safety and not to be harassed by police.
• Sex workers have the right to have access to free, quality and respectful health care. This
includes foreign migrant sex workers.
Encouraging clients and the public to act responsibly
For the 2008 Euro Cup, a few European GAATW members participated in a coalition campaign, “Euro
08 Campaign Against Trafficking in Women”.238 239 GAATW members were very wary about the
sensationalist reporting trends around sporting events, but wanted to see whether there was a way to
channel that attention in a more productive direction. The campaign attempted to do this by incorporating
warnings against misguided policy into campaign messages, clarifying the distinction between trafficking
and sex work, and by focusing on protection mechanisms rather than punitive measures against
immigration and sex work. Part of the campaign materials included guidelines for sex workers’ clients240,
including information on:
• How to recognise trafficked prostitution
• How to help
• What not to do
• Rules for punters
• Contact information
58 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
In Vancouver, the British Columbia Coalition of Experiential Communities (BCCEC) distributed For Our
Clients241 during the 2010 Olympics, which included guides to ethical transactions with sex workers
and sexual health information.
Public awareness campaigns during the 2006 World Cup in Germany also included condom distribution
and informing potential clients about sex workers rights.242 Two campaigns around the 2006 World
Cup in Germany, “Stop Forced Prostitution” and “Action Against Forced Prostitution”243 sought to help
sex workers’ clients identify and report trafficking cases. The Stoppt Zwangsprostitution or “Stop
Forced Prostitution” campaign244 stated that it was not judging clients in general, but raising their
awareness and encouraging them to report suspected cases of trafficking.
Existing rights for prostitutes need to be expanded in order to improve working
conditions, to ensure that services are voluntary and independent, and to combat
social stigma. We have to make sure that the human rights of prostitutes are upheld
and that prostitutes themselves are treated with respect by society at large and by
their clients in particular. Respectful treatment of prostitutes, however, must be
combined with resolute measures taken against forced prostitution.245
The “FairPlay” campaign created “10 rules” in 8 languages for sex workers’ clients, and told clients “to
make sex with a sex worker more enjoyable and fun, keep the following guidelines in mind”246:
1. Politeness, respect and a pleasant appearance will open many doors – and more.
2. Alcohol may help you overcome your fears, but it also affects your ability to keep it up. In
other words: The less you drink the more fun you’ll have.
3. A man keeps his word. Be clear from the start about what you want and what it will cost.
It prevents disappointment in the long run.
4. No means no. For example, tongue play while kissing is usually out of bounds. Every
business has its limits.
5. With a condom, or with a condom – the choice is yours. Black, green, blue, ribbed or with
pleasure bumps – take your pick. Not using a condom, however, is a major foul.
6. If you suspect violence or force is being used, what should you do? Don’t try to be a hero.
Find out where the nearest hotline is for sex workers, for example at http://www.freiersein.de.
7. Business is business – and not love, even if your time together was wonderful. That
means: Stay cool and keep your feet on the ground.
8. Pressure doesn’t help performance. Sometimes it just doesn’t work. That’s ok. Just relax
and, when the time’s right, give it another go.
9. When it comes to sex, there’s no money-back guarantee. If you’re not satisfied, talk
about it. If you’re smart, you won’t lose your head. Whatever happens, don’t demand your
money back.
10.The neighbors want to get some sleep and are not interested in your sex life. Really.
Challenge misleading and harmful campaigns
For some sex workers rights groups and their allies, raising awareness has meant correcting the
exploitative imagery in anti-trafficking campaigns. The period leading up to the 2010 Vancouver Winter
Olympics saw an increase in abolitionist rhetoric framed as anti-trafficking efforts. Rhetoric by these
groups included the use of unsubstantiated numbers, extremely polarising language, and victimising
imagery of women. In Vancouver, a coalition of sex workers rights allies protested the Salvation Army’s
plans to hold ‘group prayers’ outside of sex work sites and their ads depicting women in dangerous
and violent situations.247 248
“What they are trying to do is create real hysteria about this issue, as opposed to
coming up with productive solutions.”249 – Katrina Pacey, PIVOT Legal, legal aid
organisation, Canada
FairPlay
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59
Increase understanding about the complexities of
trafficking and its root causes, rather reducing
trafficking to a simplistic ‘supply and demand’ equation
Ban Ying, a German anti-trafficking organisation, suggested that media focus on other traffickingrelated
issues, particularly the lack of rights for trafficked women who have been “rescued”:
Women who have managed to escape such a situation and turn to the police are
being assessed according to their “value” as a witness….Trafficked women are thereby
forced into idleness and cannot earn any money during that period of time. However,
they are under intense financial pressure – also in this situation. Due to the long
waiting period for a trial to start they are losing important time which they desperately
need in order to establish a perspective for their future. The women have no right to
psychological assistance during that period of time….The women are not allowed to
see their children or other relatives during that period of time. They are also not
allowed to start an education. It can take up to three years from the first statements
as a witness until the start of a trial against the perpetrators. It is a heavy burden to
live without family contacts during such a long period of time…..There has been
virtually no media coverage of this scandal.250
Sex workers rights groups and allies in South Africa argued that the increased media and political
attention around the World Cup could have been more productively channelled into public health
efforts to address South Africa’s high HIV/AIDS rates, such as by encouraging the public to practise
safe sex.251
The Experts Group sees the World Football Cup as a specific moment in time with an
increased international attention towards trafficking in human beings, which in its
complexity and structural causes will not be solved by one-off activities around this or
other similar events. – Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European
Commission252
ENCOURAGE MORE THOUGHTFUL ANALYSIS IN PUBLIC
DISCUSSIONS AROUND TRAFFICKING
A great deal of global attention in terms of campaigns, funding, anti-trafficking laws, and a myriad of
anti-trafficking programming has certainly made anti-trafficking ‘popular’. Yet, awareness raising
campaigns run the risk of negatively impacting marginalised groups, if these campaigns are not based
on trafficked persons’ needs, strengths and aspirations.
Audiences for anti-trafficking public awareness campaigns should be encouraged to assess media
messages more thoughtfully. For example, by asking:
• What sources are they basing their information on? Who are the main ‘voices’ in the
article?
• How are they defining trafficking? Are they distinguishing between trafficking and sex
work?
• What do these images or messages say about women? What do these images or
messages say about people who come from other countries?
• Is the woman speaking for herself or are others speaking for her?
• How am I being encouraged to see her?
• What action is being asked of me?
60 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
• Who is portrayed as the victim? Who is portrayed as the criminal?
• Is this about increasing women’s power and women’s rights, or is it about ‘saving’ women?
• If they’re asking for money, where is the money going to?
OFFER LEGAL, NON-EXPLOITATIVE LABOUR OPTIONS FOR
MIGRANTS
Establishing legal channels for working-class migrants to work in countries where their labour is
needed can help prevent trafficking and exploitation. Further tightening borders and restricting immigration
can increase the likelihood of trafficking. By necessity, people are much more likely to require the
services of traffickers, brokers and smugglers if they are not allowed to travel legally on their own.
We believe that the best prevention against trafficking in persons is to create regular
labour options for migrants. The option for regular labour and employment opportunities
for migrants should also entail the option to work in prostitution. If an increased
demand in sexual services during the world soccer tournament really exists, then
prostitutes willing to migrate should be enabled to a legal and temporary entry. The
World Cup would be a good opportunity to test such a measure.253 – Dr. Nivedita
Prasad & Babette Rohner, Ban Ying, an anti-trafficking organisation (Germany) and
GAATW member
[E]stablished legal channels would substantially decrease the risk for potential labour
migrants to be trafficked and end up in slavery like conditions. They would have real
opportunities to enter the EU legally and participate in the labour market.254 – Expert
Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission
Lack of documentation also exposes migrants to a greater risk of labour exploitation
during their stay in South Africa, because employers know that undocumented
employees are unlikely to report abuses. The establishment of a broad range of
simple, inexpensive and well-publicised legal channels for immigration into South
Africa would narrow the opportunities for traffickers to mislead potential migrants and
to profit from exploitation, and would encourage migrants to use formal immigration
channels where their rights and safety would be better protected.255 – Marlise Richter
and Tamlyn Monson, Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of the
Witwatersrand, South Africa
ADDRESS SEX WORKERS’ FEARS OF POLICE VIOLENCE AND
EXPLOITATION
The harassment, exploitation and abuse of sex workers by police has been documented by sex
workers rights groups in various countries.256 In many countries, laws criminalising sex work leave sex
workers vulnerable to arrest and/or exploitation by police in exchange for not being arrested.
“I bumped into the police and they asked me if I know that prostitution is illegal, just
when I wanted to respond one of the cops, who was a female hit me with a fist on my
face and I bled lots of blood; I spent about three days not being able to talk, I was
afraid of laying charges.”257 – Female sex worker, Johannesburg, South Africa
At a South African consultation, sex worker peer educators presented sex workers’ reflections,
aspirations, and fears around the 2010 World Cup.258 Some of their fears about police included:
• Police are going to be more strict.
• Sex worker abuse and crime rate increase.
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61
• Being arrested for the World Cup period and being kept in jail.
• Worry about more gangsters on the streets and being mugged and increased violence.
• More police raids – migrant sex workers cannot open bank accounts and have to keep
money in their rooms. Police know this and do raids on their rooms and take the money.
• Worry about cleaning the streets – clean-up of the cities. Many government people see
sex workers as “dirty” and take them off the streets.
After the South African World Cup, researchers found that many of these fears had occurred.259
Amnesty or moratorium on sex work-related arrests
Decriminalising sex work remains the long-term goal for many sex workers rights groups. For
international sporting events, short-term measures could also include at the minimum, a moratorium
on sex work-related arrests.
South Africa’s HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan (2007-2011) recognises that several
higher-risk groups, such as sex workers and drug users, face barriers to accessing
HIV prevention and treatment services, and explicitly recommends the decriminalisation
of sex work….It would have been prudent for these processes to have been concluded
before the 2010 World Cup…South Africa has missed an important opportunity:
Germany, by contrast, proactively reformed its laws on sex work in 2002 – four years
before hosting the FIFA World Cup.260 – Marlise Richter, Forced Migration Studies
Programme, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
Given the heightened security and surveillance around international sporting events, sex workers
rights allies in Vancouver (2010 Winter Olympics), Johannesburg (2010 World Cup) and London (2012
Summer Olympics) have all proposed a moratorium for “laws that persecute and victimise sex workers”
or an amnesty period for sex workers in preparation and during the event.261 262 263 This was proposed
as a strategy to prevent violence and harassment (by police, but also by clients) and increase sex
workers’ access to services. Calls for a moratorium were not accepted by governments or city officials
in Vancouver and Johannesburg. However, the Vancouver City Police Department agreed to continue
their usual practice of not arresting women for working as sex workers:
[U]nless they receive a complaint, the Vancouver Police Department usually gives
sex workers a wide berth to conduct business. During the [2010 Olympic] Games,
they honored their commitment to continue the no-arrest routine.264 – ‘Vancouver sex
workers had ‘an amazing two weeks’, AOL News
Respectful partnerships between sex workers and law
enforcement to assist anti-trafficking efforts
At a 2009 South African consultation, sex workers had ‘dreams for 2010’ that included respectful
relationships with the police265:
• Co-operation from community, police, etc.
• Safety, police alert and visible – aim to protect everyone.
• The police won’t arrest us because of 2010.
• To work with the police because we are not criminals.
• To be able to do business perfect and professional without being disturbed by criminals,
violent clients and police.
The Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG) established by the Vancouver Police
Department in 2007 is one example of police collaborating with sex workers rights groups and other
community stakeholders. The SIWSAG mandate is to create, “informed strategies to reduce violence
and increase health and safety for sex industry workers, inclusive of gender identity, and sexual
orientation”266. Law enforcement in Vancouver also valued the information provided by sex workers
rights groups: “Monthly bulletins provided by a sex worker run organization support our investigations
against those who are violent toward sex workers.”
62 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Adult sex workers are best placed to become aware of cases of forced prostitution or
child prostitution that may occur as a result of trafficking. However, since they are
also likely to experience (or have experienced) harassment, judgement or abuse at
the hands of police and other government officials, it makes it very difficult for sex
workers to report cases of abuse.267 – Dr. Chandr Gould, Institute for Security Studies,
South Africa
“Sex industry workers deserve to live as safely as anyone else in Vancouver…The
VPD [Vancouver Police Department] is committed to working with industry and
community organizations to keep everyone safe.”268 – Inspector John de Haas
Sex workers rights groups in Vancouver and Johannesburg also recommended sensitivity training for
law enforcement as a “mechanism to build trust around violent date reporting for all workers within the
on-street and off-street sex industry” and to train police to “respond specifically to calls from sex
industry workers and who will pursue perpetrators of violence against workers”.269
DECRIMINALISE SEX WORK
Since its inception, GAATW has supported sex workers’ rights and valued the role sex workers rights
groups have in the anti-trafficking movement. Given the diverse contexts in which our members operate,
GAATW has not promoted any specific legislative approaches to sex work, but GAATW’s membership
does agree that:
• Sex workers have the right to organize;
• Sex workers have the right to safe working conditions;
• Violence against women in sex work is a grave human rights violation;
• Trafficking is distinct from sex work; and
• Anti-trafficking policies must factor in sex workers’ concerns and knowledge.
Decriminalisation of sex work is the removal of criminal penalties around consensual adult sex work
only; criminal penalties for forced prostitution, trafficking and underage prostitution would remain.
Decriminalising sex work has been recognised as a practical strategy that can aid anti-trafficking
efforts, boost HIV/AIDS prevention efforts, reduce violence against sex workers, and strengthen the
rights of sex workers.270 271 272 273 (for more information, see GAATW’s Beyond ‘Supply and Semand’
Catchphrases: Assessing the uses and limitations of demand-based approaches in anti-trafficking.)
Arguing for decriminalisation of sex work does not have to mean endorsement of sex
work – it shows awareness of the dangers of the criminal law – criminalising won’t
eradicate the industry, nor alter the set of power relations that may be associated with
it. It recognises that the laws that criminalise sex work punish women and particularly
women living in poverty, and women of colour most severely and create a dangerous
environment for working and living.274 – World AIDS Campaign
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63
Stakeholders working on anti-trafficking and related issues should be clear about their country’s laws
on prostitution and trafficking. This is particularly important when dealing with the media and public
perceptions. A country’s prostitution laws, for example, could indicate how sex workers would be
vulnerable to exploitation or harassment. The countries listed in the first section of this guide (see
‘Looking at the Evidence’, page 11) have different legal approaches to sex work:
• South Africa: totally criminalised, including the purchase and sale of sex as well as related
activities, e.g. brothel keeping.
• Canada: it is not illegal to buy or pay for sex but many related activities are illegal, e.g.
living off the earnings from sex work, negotiating with a client in a public place.
• Germany: sex work is legalised and is subject to regulations. Sex workers are considered
workers and are entitled to social benefits.
• Greece: sex work is legalised and subject to regulations, e.g. brothels must be located a
certain distance from schools, limit to number of employees in one workplace.
• US: laws are specific to each state, with most states criminalising both the sale and
purchase of sex.
Decriminalise sex work….Police action does not seem to alter demand and supply
for sex work, only puts an already vulnerable group of women at greater risk. The
current criminal legal framework increases sex worker risk to violence and exploitation
and should be reformed.276 – Marlise Richter and Wim Delva, South Africa
Decriminalisation may also help prevent misuse of anti-trafficking laws. A study of migrant sex workers
in London found that anti-trafficking laws were sometimes used to punish women who helped other
women travel to the UK for sex work.277 When sex work is criminalised, victims of violence in the sex
industry can end up being treated as criminals. For instance, Sheila Farmer is a sex worker in the UK
who has been charged with brothel-keeping after working with other sex workers for safety:
In 1994 I was viciously raped and attacked by a punter. I never worked alone again.
I started working with other women. We kept our own money and all paid towards the
rent and advertising. The flat was in my name because I had good credit. In 2005, we
were robbed by a gang which had been terrorizing women for months. My friend had
a gun held to her head. It took the police nine months to catch these violent criminals
because most women couldn’t report due to fear of being prosecuted themselves…In
2010 I was raided by police. Since the Proceeds of Crime Act I know of many more
women who have been raided, arrested, prosecuted and convicted because under
that Act the police and prosecutors can seize women’s money and goods and then
they get to keep a percentage of that money. Talk about pimping.278
Decriminalising sex work has the potential to assist anti-trafficking efforts by fostering cooperation
between police and sex workers.279 Sex workers would be more empowered to practice their rights and
be free to report concerns to police without fear of arrest or harassment.
Police are no longer required to go undercover to entrap sex workers and brothel
managers; police can no longer intrude into the personal and working lives of sex
workers; and they are no longer required to diligently record the names of sex workers
on a register and monitor them as criminals.280 – New Zealand Prostitutes Collective,
on the impact of the Prostitution Reform Act (2003)
The most common reasons for not reporting violence were that women fear not being
taken seriously by the police or did not want to bring attention upon themselves.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that women are often concerned their experience will
be trivialised by the police and assailants are unlikely to be convicted.281 – Charlotte
Woodward (Queensland University of Technology) and Jane Fischer (University of
Queensland), Australia
64 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
BASE ANTI-TRAFFICKING EFFORTS ON EVIDENCE, NOT
SENSATIONALISM
Use an evidence-based approach when adopting anti-trafficking measures and ensure
that measures taken are appropriate and proportionate to the patterns of abuse that
are occurring. – Recommendation from GAATW’s Collateral Damage: The Impact of
Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights Around the World (2007)282
Given its covert and politically ideological nature, trafficking statistics may be unsubstantiated and
should be analysed cautiously. While even one trafficking victim is too many, it is crucial to analyse
information carefully and use sound evidence in order to respond with appropriate proportionality to the
problem.
Many of the media articles on the supposed link between sporting events and trafficking for prostitution
appeared to only report on NGO campaigns (rather than actual trafficking issues) or repeat misleading
claims by prostitution abolitionist groups. For example, the unfounded predictions of 40,000 prostitutes/
trafficked persons were repeated in various articles without any examination into the plausibility or
source of those figures. In addition, particular quotes by politicians were also repeated uncritically
(see page 70, to the ‘What’s the evidence’ section).
While finding reliable data on trafficking remains a challenge, there is an increasing number of ‘lessons
learned’ from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and stakeholders that have engaged in antitrafficking
efforts around previous sporting events (see page 70, ‘useful contacts’ sections). We encourage
stakeholders to reach out to these groups, in order to learn from their successes and challenges in
previous host cities. During previous sporting events, sex workers rights groups have been one of the
groups that have tried to insert an evidence-based approach and rights-based approach into antitrafficking
discussions.
The Experts Group would like to highlight the need for facts-based and differentiated
information as the basis for effective policies, avoiding to feed the myths – specifically
on the numbers of victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation in connection with this
event – circulating in the public.283 – Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of
the European Commission
A Canadian report also suggested using the unique opportunity presented by international sporting
events to inform anti-trafficking discourses, through community-based research led by sex workers
and their communities.284 This could include documenting the impact of anti-trafficking measures,
monitoring human rights abuses, and tracking complaints about police and/or security.285 In South
Africa, the UN Population Fund commissioned research from the Sex Worker Education and Advocacy
Taskforce (SWEAT) which trained sex workers as fieldworkers on a project assessing the impact of
the 2010 World Cup on sex work.286
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65
204 E.g. Abrams, L. (2009, July 16). MPA Women and 2012 Olympics. Available online at: http://www.mpa.gov.uk/committees/
cep/2009/090716/09/
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http://www.opendemocracy.net/jane-esuantsiwa-goldsmith/olympics-2012-visitors-or-victims
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205 La Strada International. (2010). Questions and answers on La Strada International’s Opinion on the FIFA World Cup
2010 and Human rafficking. Available online at: http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/Q%20&%20A%20human%20
trafficking%20and%20FIFA%20WORLD%20CUP%202010.pdf
206 Lepp, A. (2010). Gender, racialisation and mobility: Human trafficking and the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games.
Alliance News, 33, 47-51. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/Alliance%20News/
Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
207 Richardson, S. (ed.). “One Year of My Blood”: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in Beijing. Human Rights
Watch, 20 (3). Retrieved April 23, 2010 from http://www.hrw.org/reports/2008/03/11/one-year-my-blood-0
208 Available online at: http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/VS_QatarEN_final.pdf
209 Canada Line foreign workers treated unfairly, tribunal rules. (2008, December 3). CBC News. Available online at: http:/
/www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2008/12/03/bc-canada-line-workers.html
210 The British Columbia and Yukon Territory Building and Construction Trades Council. (2008, December 3). Human rights
tribunal favours Latin American Canada Line workers [media advisory]. Available online at: http://www.bcbuildingtrades.org/
pages/pressreleases.asp?Action=View&ID=120
211 International Labour Rights Forum. (2010). Missed the Goal for Workers: The Reality of Soccer Ball Stitchers in
Pakistan, India, China and Thailand. Washington, D.C.: ILRF. Available online at: http://www.laborrights.org/stop-childforced-
labor/foulball-campaign/resources/12331
212 International Textile, Garment, Leather Workers’ Federation. (2011). An Overview of Working Conditions in Sportswear
Factories in Indonesia, Sri Lanka & the Philippines. Available online at: http://www.itglwf.org/lang/en/documents/
ITGLWFSportswearReport2011.pdf
213 PlayFair. (2008). No medal for the Olympics on labour rights. Available online at: http://www.playfair2008.org/docs/
playfair_2008-report.pdf
214 http://www.playfair2008.org/
215 Debroux, M. (2011, March 31). A Sporting Chance for Workers: Launch of the Play Fair Campaign in Brazil. Available
online at: http://www.ituc-csi.org/a-sporting-chance-for-workers.html
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(2007, October 4). Tackling the trafficking of young footballers in France. Association Internationale de la Presse Sportive
(International Sports Press Association). Available online at : http://www.aipsmedia.com/index.php?page=
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217 Laiboni, N. (2010, March 8). Safe Migration for Kenyan Athletes and Other Migrants. KenyaImagine. Available online at:
http://www.kenyaimagine.com/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=3431
218 Arthur, J. (2009, June 15). Facts and fictions about sex trafficking and Vancouver’s 2010 Olympics. Georgia Straight.
Available at: http://www.straight.com/article-232537/joyce-arthur-facts-and-fictions-about-sex-trafficking-andvancouvers-
2010-olympics
219 GAATW. (2008). Report of the GAATW European Regional Consultation – Centring the Rights of Trafficked Persons
in a Changing Environment: Addressing the Challenges Together, Vienna, Austria, 24-26 October 2008.
220 United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2002). Recommended Principles and Guidelines on
Human Rights and Human Trafficking. Available online at: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/Traffickingen.pdf
221 United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2010). Recommended Principles and Guidelines on
Human Rights and Human Trafficking: Commentary. Geneva: OHCHR. Available online at: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/
Publications/Commentary_Human_Trafficking_en.pdf
222 Also see GAATW (Ed.). (2007). Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights Around
the World. Bangkok: GAATW. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/Collateral%20Damage_Final/
singlefile_CollateralDamagefinal.pdf
223 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
224 Brazilian Observatory of Human Trafficking. (2011, August). texto copa 2014 observatorio
225 GAATW (Ed.). (2007). Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights Around the
World. Bangkok: GAATW. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/Collateral%20Damage_Final/
singlefile_CollateralDamagefinal.pdf
226 Hodson, J. (2009, September 25). Anti-sex trafficking campaign slammed. Metro Vancouver. Available online at: http://
http://www.metronews.ca/vancouver/local/article/321370—anti-sex-trafficking-campaign-slammed
227 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
228 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
66 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
229 Harper, E., Massawe, D. & Richter, M. (2010). Report on the 2010 Soccer World Cup and Sex Work: Documenting
Successes and Failures.
FMSP Research Report. Johannesburg: Forced Migration Studies Programme (University of the Witwatersrand). Available
online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/Report_on_the_2010_Soccer_World_Cup_
and_Sex_Work_-_Documenting_Successes_and_Failures.pdf
230 Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) & South African National AIDS Council (SANAC). (2009,
November 26-27). Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_
2009.pdf
231 Harper, E., Massawe, D. & Richter, M. (2010). Report on the 2010 Soccer World Cup and Sex Work: Documenting
Successes and Failures. FMSP Research Report. Johannesburg: Forced Migration Studies Programme (University of the
Witwatersrand). Available online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/
Report_on_the_2010_Soccer_World_Cup_and_Sex_Work_-_Documenting_Successes_and_Failures.pdf
232 La Strada International. (2010). Questions and answers on La Strada International’s Opinion on the FIFA World Cup
2010 and Human Trafficking. Available online at: http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/
Q%20&%20A%20human%20trafficking%20and%20FIFA%20WORLD%20CUP%202010.pdf
233 (2009, May 18). Vancouver sex workers to get media training prior to Winter Olympics. CBC News. Available online at:
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/05/18/bc-sex-worker-training.html
234 (2009, May 18). Vancouver sex workers to get media training prior to Winter Olympics. CBC News. Available online at:
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/05/18/bc-sex-worker-training.html
235 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
236 La Strada International. (2010). Questions and answers on La Strada International’s Opinion on the FIFA World Cup
2010 and Human Trafficking. Available online at: http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/Q%20&%20A%20human%20
trafficking%20and%20FIFA%20WORLD%20CUP%202010.pdf
237 Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) & South African National AIDS Council (SANAC). (2009,
November 26-27). Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_
2009.pdf
238 See http://www.frauenhandeleuro08.ch/en/home/
239 GAATW. (2008). Report of the GAATW European Regional Consultation – Centring the Rights of Trafficked Persons
in a Changing Environment: Addressing the Challenges Together, Vienna, Austria, 24-26 October 2008.
240 http://www.verantwortlicherfreier.ch/en/index.html
241 Available online at: http://tradesecretsguide.blogspot.com/search/label/For%20Our%20Clients
242 Loewenberg, S. (2006). Fears of World Cup sex trafficking boom unfounded. The Lancet, 368 (8), 105-106.
243 Or Handeln gegen Zwangsprostitution by Diakonie, affiliated with the Protestant Church in Germany (IOM)
244 See http://www.stoppt-zwangsprostitution.de
245 Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany.
IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/
shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
246 Loewenberg, S. (2006). Fears of World Cup sex trafficking boom unfounded. The Lancet, 368 (8), 105-106.
247 FIRST. (2009, September 24). Rights Not Rescue: An Open Letter to the Salvation Army. Available online at: http://
http://www.firstadvocates.org/rights-not-rescue-open-letter-salvation-army
248 PIVOT Legal Society. (2009, September 24). Advocacy groups denounce Salvation Army’s human trafficking campaign.
Available online at: http://www.pivotlegal.org/News/09-09-24—Salvation_Army_campaign.html
249 (2009, September 24). Human-trafficking fight draws criticism. CBC News. Available online at: http://www.cbc.ca/
news/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/09/24/bc-salvation-army-sex-trafficking.html
250 Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup and the consequences of an
unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
251 Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) & South African National AIDS Council (SANAC). (2009,
November 26-27). Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_
2009.pdf
252 Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission. (2006). Opinion of the Expert Group on
Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission In Connection with the World Football Cup 2006 in Germany
and the Related Assumption of Increased Trafficking Activities Around this Event. Available online at: http://
lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/350%20opinion_expert_group_WorldCup.pdf
253 Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup and the consequences of an
unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
254 Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission. (2006). Opinion of the Expert Group on
Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission In Connection with the World Football Cup 2006 in Germany
and the Related Assumption of Increased Trafficking Activities Around this Event. Available online at: http://
lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/350%20opinion_expert_group_WorldCup.pdf
255 Richter, M. & Monson, T. (2010). Human trafficking & migration. Migration Issue Brief 4. Available online at: http://
http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/FMSP_Migration_Issue_Brief_4_Trafficking_June_2010_doc.pdf
256 E.g. Richter, M. & Gould, C. (2010, March 23). The Need for Evidence to Assess Concerns About Human Trafficking
During the 2010 World Cup. Available online at: http://www.iss.co.za/iss_today.php?ID=917
Ditmore, M. (ed.). (2005). Sex work and law enforcement. Research for Sex Work, 8. Available online at: http://
http://www.nswp.org/sites/nswp.org/files/research-for-sex-work-8-english.pdf
van Beelen, N. & Rakhmetova, A. (2010). Sex work and violence. Research for Sex Work, 12. Available online at:
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
67
http://www.nswp.org/sites/nswp.org/files/research-for-sex-work-12-english-russian_0.pdf
Crago, A-L. (2009). Arrest the Violence: Human Rights Violations Against Sex Workers in 11 Countries in Central and
Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Sex Workers’ Rights Advocacy Network (SWAN). Available online at: http://
http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/sharp/articles_publications/publications/human-rights-violations-20091217/arrestviolence-
20091217.pdf
257 Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”: Research findings regarding
the impact of the 2010 Soccer World Cup on sex work in South Africa. Johannesburg: UNFPA. Available online at: http:/
/www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/sweat_report.pdf
258 Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) & South African National AIDS Council (SANAC). (2009,
November 26-27). Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_
2009.pdf
259 Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”: Research findings regarding
the impact of the 2010 Soccer World Cup on sex work in South Africa. Johannesburg: UNFPA. Available online at:
http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/sweat_report.pdf
260 Richter, M. (2009, November 26-27). Sex work and the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Time for public health imperatives to
prevail. Presentation at Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_
2009.pdf
261 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
262 Richter ML, Chersich MF, Scorgie F, Luchters S, Temmerman M, Steen R. Sex work and the 2010 FIFA World Cup: time
for public health imperatives to prevail. Globalization and Health 2010; 6: 1-6.
263 Toynbee Hall. (2009, September29). Prostitution and the Olympics Summit. Available online at: http://www.toynbeehall.org.uk/
core/core_picker/download.asp?id=2007
264 Drummond, K. (2010, March 3). Vancouver sex workers had ‘an amazing two weeks’. AOL News. Available online at:
http://www.aolnews.com/2010/03/03/vancouver-sex-workers-had-an-amazing-two-weeks/
265 Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) & South African National AIDS Council (SANAC). (2009,
November 26-27). Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/
Consult_Meet_Report_2009.pdf
266 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations.
Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/
sextraffic2010games.pdf
267 Gould, C. (2010). Human trafficking and the World Cup: How big is the threat? ISS News (website). Available online at:
http://www.iss.co.za/iss_today.php?ID=953
268 (2009, June 11). 2010 Games won’t bring surge of sex trafficking: study. CBC News. Available online at: http://
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/06/11/bc-olympics-sex-workers.html
269 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
270 Richter ML, Chersich MF, Scorgie F, Luchters S, Temmerman M, Steen R. Sex work and the 2010 FIFA World Cup: time
for public health imperatives to prevail. Globalization and Health 2010; 6: 1-6.
271 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
272 World AIDS Campaign. (2010). Sex Work and the Law: The Case for Decriminalisation. Available online at: http://
http://www.nswp.org/sites/nswp.org/files/Sex%20Work%20&%20the%20Law.pdf
273 New Zealand Government. (2008). Report of the Prostitution Law Review Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution
Reform Act 2003. Wellington: Ministry of Justice. Available online at: http://www.chezstella.org/docs/NZProstitutionLawReview.
pdf
274 World AIDS Campaign. (2010). Sex Work and the Law: The Case for Decriminalisation. Available online at: http://
http://www.nswp.org/sites/nswp.org/files/Sex%20Work%20&%20the%20Law.pdf
275 i.e. Sections 210-213 of the Canadian Criminal Code. For more information, see http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/
C-46/
276 Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”: Research findings regarding
the impact of the 2010 Soccer World Cup on sex work in South Africa. Johannesburg: UNFPA. Available online at: http:/
/www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/sweat_report.pdf
277 Mai, N. (2010). Migrant Workers in the UK Sex Industry: Final Policy-Relevant Report. Available online at: http://
http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/fms/MRSite/Research/iset/Migrant%20Workers%20in%20the%20UK%20Sex%20Industry%20
Policy-Relevant%20Findings2.pdf
278 Farmer, S. (2011, June 11). Sheila Farmer’s speech at Slutwalk. Available online at: http://www.prostitutescollective.net/
Sheila_Farmer_speech_Slutwalk_London.htm
279 New Zealand Government. (2008). Report of the Prostitution Law Review Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution
Reform Act 2003. Wellington: Ministry of Justice. Available online at: http://www.chezstella.org/docs/NZProstitutionLawReview.
pdf
280 New Zealand Prostitutes Collective (NZPC). (2009, November 26-27). New Zealand’s legal framework in relation to sex
work. Presentation at Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_
2009.pdf
281 Woodward, C. & Fischer, J. (2005). Regulating the world’s oldest profession: Queensland’s experience with a regulated
sex industry. Research for Sex Work, June, 16-18. Available online at: http://www.nswp.org/sites/nswp.org/files/research-
68 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
for-sex-work-8-english.pdf
282 Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/Collateral%20Damage_Final/singlefile_CollateralDamagefinal.pdf
283 Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission. (2006). Opinion of the Expert Group on
Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission In Connection with the World Football Cup 2006 in Germany
and the Related Assumption of Increased Trafficking Activities Around this Event. Available online at: http://
lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/350%20opinion_expert_group_WorldCup.pdf
284 Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and the 2010 Games: Assessments
and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://
http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/sextraffic2010games.pdf
285 Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) & South African National AIDS Council (SANAC). (2009,
November 26-27). Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa.
Available online at: http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/resources/Consult_Meet_Report_
2009.pdf
286 Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”: Research findings regarding
the impact of the 2010 Soccer World Cup on sex work in South Africa. Johannesburg: UNFPA. Available online at: http:/
/www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/sweat_report.pdf
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
69
To sum up
As a global anti-trafficking organisation, GAATW is concerned that international sporting events are
being linked with increases in trafficking for prostitution, without evidence. This has been promoted
most heavily by prostitution abolitionist groups, who argue that large numbers of men automatically
results in a greater demand for commercial sex which can only be met through trafficking women into
prostitution.
As a result, massive amounts of resources, law enforcement, media publicity and government attention
have been channelled to address this supposed risk, yet all the attention and resources have failed to
turn up any compelling evidence that large sporting events increase trafficking for prostitution. Yet the
idea still captures governments’ and media attention, for several reasons, including its utility to frame
prostitution abolitionist and/or anti-migrant sentiments in a more humanitarian guise.
Human trafficking is a very serious human rights violation that demands a sustained and holistic
response based on real evidence. One of our concerns has been that valuable resources and public
momentum are being channelled towards a falsely constructed issue, resources that are otherwise
very needed to genuinely tackle trafficking.
Another concern is that linking trafficking and sex work in this way has resulted in ‘collateral damage’287,
that is negatively impacting some of the groups who are affected by anti-trafficking policies, particularly
sex workers. For instance, law enforcement and government officials who propose crackdowns and
further restrictions on migrants and women in sex work, in an effort to protect…..migrants and women
in sex work.
Fortunately, more stakeholders are increasingly becoming aware that there is no evidence to support
the claim that large sporting events and trafficking for prostitution are linked. During previous sporting
events, sex workers rights organisations in particular have worked hard to insert an evidence-based
approach and rights-based approach into anti-trafficking discussions.
We hope the information in this guide has helped readers to critically evaluate the messages and
information they receive about trafficking and sporting events. It’s unlikely that short-term hype can
fuel long-term efforts, but there are ways for people to effectively engage in anti-trafficking – not as
‘saviours’, but as allies.
287 E.g. See GAATW. (2007). Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights Around the
World. Bangkok: GAATW. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/Collateral%20Damage_Final/
singlefile_CollateralDamagefinal.pdf
70 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
Useful contacts and suggested
resources
RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL (2014 WORLD CUP AND 2016
OLYMPICS)
Brazilian Observatory of Human Trafficking, a coalition of:
• Associacao de Defesa da Mulher, da Infancia e da Juventude or the Brazilian Association
for the Defense of Women, Children and Youth (ASBRAD)
• Centro Humanit rio de Apoio Mulher or the Humanitarian Center to Support Women
(CHAME)
• Cedeca-Emmaus / Projeto Jepiara
• Colectivo Leila Diniz (CLD)
• Sociedade de Defesa dos Direitos Sexuais na Amaz nia or the Society for the Defense of
Sexual Rights in the Amazon (Sodireitos)
• Instituto Brasileiro de Inovacoes pro Sociedade Saudavel or the Brazilian Institute of
Innovations for a Healthy Society (IBISS-CO)
• Centro de Apoio ao Migrante (CAMI)
• Projeto TRAMA
Email: observatoriobr@yahoo.com.br
Facebook: Observatorio Brasileiro do Trafico de Pessoas
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM (2012 OLYMPICS)
CONTACTS
Georgina Perry, Open Doors
Email: Georgina.Perry@chpct.nhs.uk
UK Network of Sex Work Projects
Email: admin@uknswp.org.uk
Website: http://www.uknswp.org
MEDIA ARTICLES
1. Doward, J. (2011, April 10). London 2012 Olympics: Crackdown on brothels ‘puts sex
workers at risk’. The Observer. Available online at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/
apr/10/brothel-crackdown-london-olympics-risk
2. Paterson, S. (2009, July 29). Trafficking, the Olympics, and the bill. An Anthology of
English Pros: Prostitution Law in the UK. Available online at: http://
stephenpaterson.wordpress.com/2009/07/29/traffickingtheolympicsandthebill/
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
71
SOUTH AFRICA (2010 WORLD CUP)
CONTACTS
• Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT), Website: http://www.sweat.org.za
• Marlise Richter, International Centre for Reproductive Health, Ghent University, Email:
marlise.richter@gmail.com
• Dr. Chandr Gould, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, Email: cgould@issafrica.org
• Dr. Loren Landau, African Centre for Migration and Society, University of the Witwatersrand,
South Africa, Email: loren@migration.org.za
• Dr. Wim Delva, University of Ghent, Belgium, Email: wim.delva@ugent.be
• Sex work, health & human rights (e-group moderated by Marlise Richter): http://
groups.google.com/group/sex-work-2010-reference-group
REPORTS, JOURNAL ARTICLES, DOCUMENTS
3. Gould, C. (2010). Human trafficking and the World Cup: How big is the threat? ISS News
(website). Available online at: http://www.iss.co.za/iss_today.php?ID=953
4. Harper, E., Massawe, D. & Richter, M. (2010). Report on the 2010 Soccer World Cup and
Sex Work: Documenting Successes and Failures. FMSP Research Report. Johannesburg:
Forced Migration Studies Programme (University of the Witwatersrand). Available online
at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/
Report_on_the_2010_Soccer_World_Cup_and_Sex_
Work_-_Documenting_Successes_and_Failures.pdf
5. La Strada International. (2010). Questions and answers on La Strada International’s Opinion
on the FIFA World Cup 2010 and Human Trafficking. Available online at: http://
lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/Q%20&%20A%20human%20
trafficking%20and%20FIFA%20WORLD%20CUP%202010.pdf
6. Richter, M. (2009). Pimp my ride for 2010: Sex work, legal reform and HIV/AIDS. Gender
and media Diversity Journal, 7, 80-88. Available online at: http://www.genderlinks.org.za/
article/pimp-my-ride-for-2010-sex-work-legal-reform-and-hiv-and-aids-2010-01-05
7. Richter ML, Chersich MF, Scorgie F, Luchters S, Temmerman M, Steen R. Sex work and
the 2010 FIFA World Cup: time for public health imperatives to prevail. Globalization and
Health 2010; 6: 1-6.
8. Richter, M. & Delva, W. (2010). “Maybe it will be better once this World Cup has passed”:
Research findings regarding the impact of the 2010 Soccer World Cup on sex work in
South Africa. Johannesburg: UNFPA. Available online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/
default/files/sweat_report.pdf
9. Richter, M. & Gould, C. (2010, March 23). The Need for Evidence to Assess Concerns
About Human Trafficking During the 2010 World Cup. Available online at: http://
http://www.iss.co.za/iss_today.php?ID=917
10.Richter, M. & Massawe, D. (2010). Serious soccer, sex (work) and HIV – will South Africa
be too hot to handle during the 2010 World Cup? South African Medical Journal, 100 (4),
222-223. Available online at: http://www.samj.org.za/files/2.pdf
11.Richter, M. & Monson, T. (2010). Human trafficking & migration. Migration Issue Brief 4.
Available online at: http://www.migration.org.za/sites/default/files/reports/2010/
FMSP_Migration_Issue_Brief_4_Trafficking_June_2010_doc.pdf
12.Rubin, M. (2009). The offside rule: Women’s bodies in masculinised spaces. In U. Pillay,
R. Tomlinson, & O. Bass (Eds.), Development and dreams: The urban legacy of the 2010
football World Cup (266-280). Cape Town: HSRC Press. Available online at: http://
http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/product.php?productid=2259&freedownload=1
13.Sex Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT) & South African National AIDS
Council (SANAC). (2009, November 26-27). Consultation on HIV/AIDS, Sex Work and
the 2010 Soccer World Cup, Cape Town, South Africa. Available online at: http://
http://www.womensnet.org.za/sites/womensnet.org.za/files/
resources/Consult_Meet_Report_2009.pdf
14.Walter, D. (ed.) (2009). Gender, media and sport [issue]. Gender and Media Diversity
Journal, 7. Available online at: http://www.genderlinks.org.za/article/the-southern-africanmedia-
diversity-journal-issue-7-2010-01-12
15.Weekes, A. (2006). South African anti-trafficking legislation: A critique of control over
women’s freedom of movement and sexuality. Agenda, 70, 29-37. Available online at:
72 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/72478610/focus-fiona
MEDIA ARTICLES
16.Ajam, K. (2010). Trafficking of people, the Cup crisis that never was. IOL News. Available
online at: http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/trafficking-of-people-the-cup-crisis-thatnever-
was-1.490109
17.Bialik, C. (2010, June 19). Suspect estimates of sex trafficking at the World Cup. Wall
Street Journal. Available online at: http://online.wsj.com/article/
SB10001424052748704289504575312853491596916.html
18.Carpenter, L. (2010, June 10). Debunking World Cup’s biggest myth. Yahoo! Sports.
Available online at: http://g.sports.yahoo.com/soccer/world-cup/news/debunking-worldcups-
biggest-myth—fbintl_lc-prostitutes061010.html
19.Kelto, A. (2010, July 6). World Cup avoids flood of sex workers. National Public Radio.
Available online at: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128342077
20.Robertson, D. (2010). SA report: World Cup human trafficking warnings exaggerated.
Voice of America. Available online at: http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/
southern/World-Cup-Human-Trafficking-Warnings-Exaggerated-96886959.html
21.Sapa. (2010, March 4). World Cup trafficking exaggerated. JacarandaFM. Available online
at: http://www.jacarandafm.com/kagiso/content/en/jacaranda/jacarandanews?
oid=583277&sn=Detail&pid=6102&—World-Cup-trafficking-exaggerated—
22.Soccer/Football Legends Revealed #4. Available online at: http://www.legendsrevelead.com/
Sports/2010/06/21/Soccerfootball-legends-revealed-4/
23.Wyatt, B. (2010, July 10). Soccer fans shun hookers for art’s sake. CNN. Available online
at: http://edition.cnn.com/2010/SPORT/football/07/09/prostitute.gallery/index.html
VANCOUVER, CANADA (2010 OLYMPICS)
CONTACTS
FIRST, sex worker ally group, Vancouver, Canada
• Contact: Joyce Arthur, jharthur@shaw.ca
• Website: http://www.firstadvocates.org
GAATW Canada
• Contact: Dr. Annalee Lepp, alepp@uvica.ca
REPORTS, MAGAZINE ARTICLES, DOCUMENTS
24.Bowen & Shannon Frontline Consulting. (2009). Human Trafficking, Sex Work Safety and
the 2010 Games: Assessments and recommendations. Vancouver: Sex Industry Worker
Safety Action Group (SIWSAG). Available online at: http://www.straight.com/files/pdf/
sextraffic2010games.pdf
25.Lepp, A. (2010). Gender, racialisation and mobility: Human trafficking and the 2010 Vancouver
Winter Olympic Games. Alliance News, 33, 47-51. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/
publications/Alliance%20News/Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
26.Shannon, E. (2010). Sex workers’ rights and Olympic anti-trafficking rhetoric. Alliance
News, 33, 27-31. Available online at: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/Alliance%20News/
Alliance_News_July_2010.pdf
MEDIA ARTICLES
27.Arthur, J. & O’Doherty, T. (2007, December 12). A 2010 Deadline for Prostitution. Vancouver
Sun. Available online at: http://www.firstadvocates.org/press/first-op-ed-dec-12-2007
28.Drummond, K. (2010, March 3). Vancouver sex workers had ‘an amazing two weeks’.
AOL News. Available online at: http://www.aolnews.com/2010/03/03/vancouver-sex-workershad-
an-amazing-two-weeks/
29.FIRST. (2009, September 24). Rights Not Rescue: An Open Letter to the Salvation Army.
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
73
Available online at: http://www.firstadvocates.org/rights-not-rescue-open-letter-salvationarmy
30.Kardas-Nelson. M. (2010, February 25). Human trafficking and the Games. Rabble.ca.
Available online at: http://rabble.ca/news/2010/02/human-trafficking-and-games
31.Little, N. (2008, December 22). Salvation Army plays into the fear and paranoia around
sex work. Xtra. Available online at: http://www.xtra.ca/public/National/
Salvation_Army_plays_into_the_fear_and_paranoia_around_sex_work-6057.aspx
BERLIN, GERMANY (2006 WORLD CUP)
CONTACTS
Ban Ying, anti-trafficking organisation, Berlin, Germany
• Contact: Dr. Nivedita Prasad, info@ban-ying.de
• Website: http://www.ban-ying.de
La Strada International, anti-trafficking network,
• Contact: Suzanne Hoff, info@lastradainternational.org
• Website: http://www.lastradainternational.org
Dr. Sanja Milivojevi , University of New South Wales
• Email: s.milivojevic@unsw.edu.au
• Resources:
REPORTS, JOURNAL ARTICLES, DOCUMENTS
32.Ban Ying. (2006, July 11). Where are the 40,000? Statement on Trafficking during the
World Cup. Available online at: http://www.ban-ying.de/pageeng/start.htm
33.Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission. (2006). Opinion
of the Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission In
Connection with the World Football Cup 2006 in Germany and the Related Assumption of
Increased Trafficking Activities Around this Event. Available online at: http://
lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/350%20opinion_expert_group_WorldCup.pdf
34.Hennig, J., Craggs, S., Laczko, F., & Larsson, F. (2007). Trafficking in human beings and
the 2006 World Cup in Germany. IOM Migration Research Series, No. 29. Available online
at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/
published_docs/serial_publications/mrs29.pdf
35.Loewenberg, S. (2006). Fears of World Cup sex trafficking boom unfounded. The Lancet,
368(8), 105-106.
36.Milivojevi , S. & Pickering, S. (2008). Football and sex: the 2006 FIFA World Cup and sex
trafficking. TEMIDA, 21-47. Available online at: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1450-
6637/2008/1450-66370802021M.pdf
37.Milivojevi , S. (2008). Women’s bodies, moral panic and the world game: Sex trafficking,
the 2006 Football World Cup and beyond. Proceedings of the 2nd Australian & New
Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, 19-20 June 2008. Sydney: Crime & Justice
Research Network and the Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Network.
Available online at: http://www.cjrn.unsw.edu.au/critcrimproceedings2008.pdf
38.Prasad, N. & Rohner, B. (2006). Dramatic increase in forced prostitution? The World Cup
and the consequences of an unscreened rumour. Ban Ying. Available online at: http://
http://www.ban-ying.de/downloads/Worldcup&Trafficking.pdf
MEDIA ARTICLES
39.Arnold, C. (2006, June 13). A red card for hype on World Cup trafficking story. Project
Hope International. Available online at: http://preventhumantrafficking.org/storage/article-
74 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?
downloads/RedCardForHype.pdf
40.Waterfield, B. (2007, February 14). Exposed: The myth of the World Cup ‘sex slaves’.
spiked. Available online at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/2850/
SUPER BOWL (US)
MEDIA ARTICLES
41.Kotz, P. (2011, January 27). The Super Bowl prostitute myth: 100,000 hookers won’t be
showing up in Dallas. Dallas Observer. Available online at: http://www.dallasobserver.com/
2011-01-27/news/the-super-bowl-prostitute-myth-100-000-hookers-won-t-be-showing-up-indallas/
42.Lee, E. (2011, February 3). Super Bowl hyperbole and prostitution. The Star. Available
online at: http://www.thestar.com/sports/football/nfl/superbowl/article/932794—super-bowlhyperbole-
and-prostitution
43.Whitely, J. (2011, January 31). Super Bowl prostitution forecast has no proof. WFAA.
Available online at: http://www.wfaa.com/sports/football/super-bowl/Super-Bowl-prostitutionprediction-
has-no-proof—114983179.html
GENERAL
JOURNAL ARTICLES, STATEMENTS
44.Hayes, V. (2010). Human trafficking for sexual exploitation at world sporting events. Chicago-
Kent Law Review, 85(3), 1105-1146.
45.International Union of Sex Workers (IUSW). (2009). The Way Forward: A Call for Action to
End Violence Against Women in the Sex Industry. Available online at: http://www.iusw.org/
2009/07/a-call-for-action-to-end-violence-against-women-in-the-sex-industry/
46.Jordan, A. (2011). Fact or fiction: What do we really know about human trafficking? Program
on Human Trafficking and Forced Labour, Issue Paper 3. Washington, D.C.: American
University Washington College of Law. Available online at: http://rightswork.org/wp-content/
uploads/2011/09/Issue-Paper-3.pdf
MEDIA ARTICLES, BLOGS
47.Agustin, L. The Naked Anthropologist [blog]. Available online at: http://www.lauraagustin.com
48.O’Neill, B. (2010, March 18). Stop this illicit trade in bullshit stories. spiked. Available
online at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php/site/printable/8324/
49.Ozimek, J.F. (2010, October 7). Have hordes of sex workers snubbed the Commonwealth
games? The Register. Available online at: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2010/10/07/
olympic_workers/
50.Paterson, S. (2010, September 29). Sexual enslavement at the Ryder Cup? spiked.
Available online at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php/site/article/9712/
ACTING EFFECTIVELY
75
Acknowledgements
Many thanks to the following individuals, who generously provided insightful critiques of earlier drafts:
Noushin Khushrushahi, Tamara O’Doherty, Stephen Paterson, Marlise Richter, Esther Shannon, Mary
Shearman. Thanks also to Georgina Perry and Catherine Stephens for sharing their insights on the
community-level impacts of this issue in London.
This project was supported by a grant from the Open Society Foundations. We thank Heather Doyle
and the Open Society Foundations for their support and their recommendations throughout the project.
Finally, thanks to the GAATW Executive Board and International Secretariat colleagues for their critiques,
recommendations and encouragement.
78 WHAT’S THE COST OF A RUMOUR?

This entry was posted in Colorado, Denver, essays, Football, Human Trafficking, Law, Myths, NFL, olympics, Prostitution, research, research paper, sex, Sex Slavery, Sex Tourism, Sex Trafficking, Sex Workers, Sports, Super Bowl, world cup and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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